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Chemical Compound Review

Biuret     aminocarbonylurea

Synonyms: Isobiuret, Carbamylurea, Allophanamide, Carbamoylurea, CPD-809, ...
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Disease relevance of Biuret


High impact information on Biuret

  • Urine specimens ultrafiltered through 3-kDa-cutoff membranes had substantial biuret reactivity, but absorbance maxima were consistent with cross-reactive amino acids rather than peptides [6].
  • METHODS: We analyzed the specificity and kinetics of a biuret reaction for solutions of amino acids, organic compounds, peptides, proteins, and ultrafiltered urine specimens and compared the results with standard clinical assays for protein measurement [6].
  • Protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured by a modified biuret procedure and in two automated instruments, the Du Pont aca and the Kodak Ektachem [7].
  • To investigate the impact of this variability on clinical measurements of proteinuria, we collected urine specimens from patients with glomerular disease or drug-induced tubular nephrotoxicity and compared urinary protein concentrations as determined by the CBB method with those obtained by the biuret method [8].
  • For the biuret assay, Lowry-Peterson assay, Bio-Rad Coomassie Blue assay, and Pierce BCA assay, the correlation coefficients were 0.96, 0.97, 0.89, 0.99, respectively [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Biuret

  • RESULTS: When excretion rates were determined by radioactivity it was apparent that only the albumin excretion rate increased significantly with STZ diabetes to a value of 354 +/- 166 microg/min which agrees with proteinuria determined by Biuret assay of 299.9 +/- 52.4 microg/min [10].

Biological context of Biuret


Anatomical context of Biuret

  • Assay of cerebrospinal fluid protein: a rate biuret method evaluated [15].
  • In a separate experiment, protein concentrations of turkey seminal plasma were estimated by biuret or Bradford methods [16].
  • A rapid biuret assay for protein of whole fatty tissues [17].
  • The total protein content of follicular fluid samples collected from both sources was similar and the results determined with the Biuret, Lowry and Biorad methods were also not significantly different (P>0.05) [18].
  • A good correlation was obtained for total protein between the Chem-1 (y) and the biuret reference method (x) in 58 ascitic fluids (y = 1.02x -0.3; r = 1.00) [19].

Associations of Biuret with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Biuret

  • We compared various procedures and biuret reagents suggested for determination of protein in lipemic sera [25].
  • Purification and characterization of TrzF: biuret hydrolysis by allophanate hydrolase supports growth [4].
  • In vitro, TrzF was shown to hydrolyze biuret to liberate 3 mol of ammonia [4].
  • In patients with a positive qualitative test (Combistix), quantitative measurement (Biuret) for proteinuria was carried out; when proteinuria was greater than 0.5 g/24 h, SDS gel electrophoresis was performed [26].
  • The process has been characterized by methods including nonreduced SDS-PAGE, alpha 1 PI inhibition assay, and biuret protein assay [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Biuret

  • Results by this method and a comparison method that included gel filtration and a modified biuret reaction correlated well (r = 0.951) [28].
  • METHODS: Stimulated tear samples collected from 33 volunteers (17 men, 16 women), aged 23 to 51 years, who were fed or fasted for 12 hours, were assayed for total protein and insulin content by the biuret dye test and a radioimmunoassay, respectively [29].
  • The separation and detection of biuret complexes of neuropeptides by capillary liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was explored [30].
  • The accuracy of the proposed procedure was assessed by comparisons with results obtained by using an ultrafiltration membrane that retains solutes with an average molecular weight in excess of 10 000 for separating of urinary proteins before they are measured with the biuret reaction [1].
  • Optimization of the conditions for biuret complex formation for the determination of peptides by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection [31].


  1. Improved biuret procedure for routine determination of urinary total proteins in clinical proteinuria. Rice, E.W. Clin. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Improved method for determining serum protein concentrations in the far ultraviolet. Ressler, N., Gashkoff, M., Fischinger, A. Clin. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Complete nucleotide sequence and organization of the atrazine catabolic plasmid pADP-1 from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Martinez, B., Tomkins, J., Wackett, L.P., Wing, R., Sadowsky, M.J. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Purification and characterization of TrzF: biuret hydrolysis by allophanate hydrolase supports growth. Shapir, N., Cheng, G., Sadowsky, M.J., Wackett, L.P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential diagnosis of human ascites: inhibitors of the contact system and total proteins. Buø, L., Karlsrud, T.S., Dyrhaug, G., Jacobsen, M.B., Bell, H., Johansen, H.T., Aasen, A.O. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Cross-reactivity of amino acids and other compounds in the biuret reaction: interference with urinary peptide measurements. Hortin, G.L., Meilinger, B. Clin. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Estimation of reference intervals for total protein in cerebrospinal fluid. Lott, J.A., Warren, P. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue method underestimates drug-induced tubular proteinuria. Goren, M.P., Li, J.T. Clin. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Determination of total protein in human milk: comparison of methods. Keller, R.P., Neville, M.C. Clin. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Nephrotic-like proteinuria in experimental diabetes. Greive, K.A., Osicka, T.M., Russo, L.M., Comper, W.D. American journal of nephrology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Purinylhydantoins. Facile conversion of the naturally occurring N-(purin-6-ylcarbamoyl)-L-amino acids into 3-pruin-6-ylhydantoins and 3-cyclohexyl-1-(purin-6-ylcarbamoyl)hydantoins. Hong, C.I., Chheda, G.B. J. Med. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of three methods for plasma fibrinogen. Saleem, A., Fretz, K., Krieg, A.F. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of cultivation mode on a bioprocess for chromium yeast biomass enrichment. Batic, M., Raspor, P. Pflugers Arch. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of intravenous safflower oil emulsion on the clotting mechanism. Van Way, C.W., Dunn, E.L., Hamstra, R.D. The American surgeon. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Assay of cerebrospinal fluid protein: a rate biuret method evaluated. Finley, P.R., Williams, R.J. Clin. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and aspartate aminotransaminase in the seminal plasma of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) producing normal white or abnormal yellow semen. Hess, R.A., Thurston, R.J. Biol. Reprod. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. A rapid biuret assay for protein of whole fatty tissues. Beyer, R.E. Anal. Biochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Amounts of selected coagulation factors in pre- and post-mortem follicular fluid are similar and do not correlate with molecular mass. Semotok, C.A., Johnson, W.H., LaMarre, J., Gentry, P.A. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Diagnostic analysis of total protein, albumin, white cell count and differential in ascitic fluid. Engel, H., Bac, D.J., Brouwer, R., Blijenberg, B.G., Lindemans, J. European journal of clinical chemistry and clinical biochemistry : journal of the Forum of European Clinical Chemistry Societies. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Four methods for determining albumin in azotemic sera evaluated. Gulyassy, P.F., Depner, T.A., Ma, W.K. Clin. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Lack of mutagenic activity of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate. Wagner, V.O., San, R.H., Gudi, R., Hilaski, R.J., Jacobson-Kram, D. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. A comparison of methods for determining total body protein. Brooks, S.P., Lampi, B.J., Sarwar, G., Botting, H.G. Anal. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Daily and alternate-day supplementation of urea or biuret to ruminants consuming low-quality forage: III. Effects on ruminal fermentation characteristics in steers. Currier, T.A., Bohnert, D.W., Falck, S.J., Schauer, C.S., Bartle, S.J. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. External quality assessment of total urinary protein estimation in the United Kingdom. Chambers, R.E., Bullock, D.G., Whicher, J.T. Ann. Clin. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Photometric determination of total protein in lipemic sera. Chromy, V., Fischer, J. Clin. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Lack of clinical evidence for a specific HIV-associated glomerulopathy in 203 patients with HIV infection. Brunkhorst, R., Brunkhorst, U., Eisenbach, G.M., Schedel, I., Deicher, H., Koch, K.M. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Purification of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor from human plasma fraction IV-1 by ion exchange chromatography. Chen, S.X., Hammond, D.J., Lang, J.M., Lebing, W.R. Vox Sang. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. An improved pyrogallol red-molybdate method for determining total urinary protein. Orsonneau, J.L., Douet, P., Massoubre, C., Lustenberger, P., Bernard, S. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of insulin in the tear film and insulin receptor and IGF-1 receptor on the human ocular surface. Rocha, E.M., Cunha, D.A., Carneiro, E.M., Boschero, A.C., Saad, M.J., Velloso, L.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Detection of peptides by precolumn derivatization with biuret reagent and preconcentration on capillary liquid chromatography columns with electrochemical detection. Shen, H., Witowski, S.R., Boyd, B.W., Kennedy, R.T. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Optimization of the conditions for biuret complex formation for the determination of peptides by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection. Gawron, A.J., Lunte, S.M. Electrophoresis (2000) [Pubmed]
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