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MeSH Review

Follicular Fluid

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Disease relevance of Follicular Fluid


High impact information on Follicular Fluid


Chemical compound and disease context of Follicular Fluid


Biological context of Follicular Fluid


Anatomical context of Follicular Fluid


Associations of Follicular Fluid with chemical compounds


Gene context of Follicular Fluid

  • We have examined, by Western ligand blot analysis, the IGFBP profiles in follicular fluid (FF) from patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (a disorder of ovarian folliculogenesis), compared to FF from atretic and developing (estrogenic) follicles from normally cycling women [29].
  • Identification of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-2 in human follicular fluid [30].
  • Two major insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3, were identified by Western ligand blotting of human follicular fluid (FF) aspirated from luteinizing follicles during ovarian stimulation with human menopausal gonadotropin (LH and FSH) [30].
  • In follicular fluid, but not in plasma, the levels of ET-1-like immunoreactivity were higher in gonadotropin-stimulated vs. spontaneous cycles, suggesting hormonal regulation of follicular ET-1 [31].
  • This study demonstrates for the first time that NT-4/5 and NT-3 are present in the follicular fluid of the human ovary [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Follicular Fluid


  1. Activity of a human follicular fluid protein(s) in spontaneous and induced ovarian cycles. diZerega, G.S., Campeau, J.D., Nakamura, R.N., Ujita, E.L., Lobo, R., Marrs, R.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of follicular fluid treatment on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and compensatory ovarian hypertrophy in prepuberal gilts. Redmer, D.A., Christenson, R.K., Ford, J.J., Day, B.N. Biol. Reprod. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Ovarian modulators of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta HSD) activity in follicular fluid from bovine and porcine large antral follicles and spontaneous ovarian cysts. Thurston, L.M., Jonas, K.C., Abayasekara, D.R., Michael, A.E. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Depletion of insulin in streptozocin-induced-diabetic pigs alters estradiol, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins in cultured ovarian follicles. Edwards, J.L., Hughey, T.C., Moore, A.B., Cox, N.M. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Concentrations of prostaglandin F2alpha in follicular fluid from women with endometriosis. Bergqvist, A., Brunkwall, J., Ploman, F. Hum. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Follicular plasminogen and plasminogen activator and the effect of plasmin on ovarian follicle wall. Beers, W.H. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Follistatin: a multifunctional regulatory protein. Phillips, D.J., de Kretser, D.M. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Targeted and restricted complement activation on acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Riley-Vargas, R.C., Lanzendorf, S., Atkinson, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Receptor guanylyl cyclases. Wong, S.K., Garbers, D.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Mouse ovarian granulosa cells produce urokinase-type plasminogen activator, whereas the corresponding rat cells produce tissue-type plasminogen activator. Canipari, R., O'Connell, M.L., Meyer, G., Strickland, S. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Follicular fluid administration delayed, but did not prevent, the hemicastration-induced increase in follicle-stimulating hormone secretion and compensatory testicular hypertrophy in ram lambs. Brown, J.L., Schoenemann, H.M., Chakraborty, P.K. Biol. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Ultrastructural analysis of the granulosa--luteal cell transition in the ovary of the dog. Abel, J.H., Verhage, H.G., McClellan, M.C., Niswender, G.N. Cell Tissue Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction in human sperm: dependency on activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i) protein and extracellular calcium, and priming effect of progesterone and follicular fluid. Schuffner, A.A., Bastiaan, H.S., Duran, H.E., Lin, Z.Y., Morshedi, M., Franken, D.R., Oehninger, S. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Chromosomal abnormality rate in human pre-embryos derived from in vitro fertilization cycles cultured in the presence of Follicular-Fluid Meiosis Activating Sterol (FF-MAS). Bergh, C., Loft, A., Lundin, K., Ziebe, S., Nilsson, L., Wikland, M., Gröndahl, C., Arce, J.C. Hum. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa accelerates the time of pronucleus formation of hamster oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Lee, D.R., Lee, J.E., Yoon, H.S., Roh, S.I. Fertil. Steril. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Ovulation induction with human menopausal gonadotropin compared to human urinary follicle-stimulating hormone results in a significant shift in follicular fluid androgen levels without discernible differences in granulosa-luteal cell function. Polan, M.L., Daniele, A., Russell, J.B., DeCherney, A.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Dynamic changes in the intrafollicular inhibin/activin/follistatin axis during human follicular development: relationship to circulating hormone concentrations. Schneyer, A.L., Fujiwara, T., Fox, J., Welt, C.K., Adams, J., Messerlian, G.M., Taylor, A.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Levels of inhibin-F activity and steroids in human follicular fluid from normal women and women with polycystic ovarian disease. Tanabe, K., Gagliano, P., Channing, C.P., Nakamura, Y., Yoshimura, Y., Iizuka, R., Fortuny, A., Sulewski, J., Rezai, N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Follistatin antagonizes the effects of activin-A on steroidogenesis in human luteinizing granulosa cells. Cataldo, N.A., Rabinovici, J., Fujimoto, V.Y., Jaffe, R.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro fertilization and primary embryonic cleavage are possible in 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency despite extremely low intrafollicular 17 beta-estradiol. Rabinovici, J., Blankstein, J., Goldman, B., Rudak, E., Dor, Y., Pariente, C., Geier, A., Lunenfeld, B., Mashiach, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. Novel stimulators of calcium influx in human sperm. Blackmore, P.F., Beebe, S.J., Danforth, D.R., Alexander, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Flow cytometric analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid in human granulosa cells from in vitro fertilization cycles: relationships to oocyte maturity and fertilizability and to follicular fluid steroids. Ben-Rafael, Z., Varello, M.A., Meloni, F., Fateh, M., Mastroianni, L., Flickinger, G.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Neurotrophin-4/5 and neurotrophin-3 are present within the human ovarian follicle but appear to have different paracrine/autocrine functions. Seifer, D.B., Feng, B., Shelden, R.M., Chen, S., Dreyfus, C.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. A two-site monoclonal antibody immunoradiometric assay for human follistatin: secretion by a human ovarian teratocarcinoma-derived cell line (PA-1). Wang, Q.F., Khoury, R.H., Smith, P.C., McConnell, D.S., Padmanahban, V., Midgley, A.R., Schneyer, A.L., Crowley, W.F., Sluss, P.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of proteins in pooled human follicular fluid which suppress follicular response to gonadotropins. diZerega, G.S., Marrs, R.P., Roche, P.C., Campeau, J.D., Kling, O.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. The isolation and characterization of estradiol-fatty acid esters in human ovarian follicular fluid. Identification of an endogenous long-lived and potent family of estrogens. Larner, J.M., Pahuja, S.L., Shackleton, C.H., McMurray, W.J., Giordano, G., Hochberg, R.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from porcine ovarian follicular fluid. Yanagishita, M., Rodbard, D., Hascall, V.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Cleavage specificity of porcine follipsin. Ohnishi, J., Kihara, T., Hamabata, T., Takahashi, K., Takahashi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Follicular fluid insulin-like growth factor binding protein profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome. Cataldo, N.A., Giudice, L.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-2 in human follicular fluid. Giudice, L.C., Farrell, E.M., Pham, H., Rosenfeld, R.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification, characterization, and biological activity of endothelin receptors in human ovary. Mancina, R., Barni, T., Calogero, A.E., Filippi, S., Amerini, S., Peri, A., Susini, T., Vannelli, G.B., Burrello, N., Forti, G., Maggi, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Changes in peripheral serum levels of total activin A during the human menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Muttukrishna, S., Fowler, P.A., George, L., Groome, N.P., Knight, P.G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Expression of c-kit messenger ribonucleic acid in human oocyte and presence of soluble c-kit in follicular fluid. Tanikawa, M., Harada, T., Mitsunari, M., Onohara, Y., Iwabe, T., Terakawa, N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Human follicular fluid contains pro- and C-terminal immunoreactive alpha-inhibin precursor proteins. Lambert-Messerlian, G.M., Isaacson, K., Crowley, W.F., Sluss, P., Schneyer, A.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. The biological and immunological characterization of inhibin A and B forms in human follicular fluid and plasma. Robertson, D.M., Cahir, N., Findlay, J.K., Burger, H.G., Groome, N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
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