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Gene Review

MAEA  -  macrophage erythroblast attacher

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cell proliferation-inducing gene 5 protein, EMLP, EMP, Erythroblast macrophage protein, GID9, ...
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Disease relevance of MAEA

  • PURPOSE: We studied the establishment of a transplantable tumor, EMP-K1, derived from extramammary Paget's disease and the morphology and unique hormone dependence of this tumor [1].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer received IV EMP as a 30- to 90-minute infusion weekly (n = 28) or for 3 consecutive days followed by a single weekly dose (n = 3) [2].
  • PURPOSE: To determine the dose-limiting toxicities, maximum-tolerated dose, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous estramustine phosphate (IV EMP) [2].
  • During acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD), significantly higher levels of EMP were detected than in patients without aGVHD (18.5/microl s=10.1 vs. 14.6/microl SD = 11.5; P = 0.004) while infectious complications did not alter EMP levels significantly [3].
  • We assessed several thrombophilia markers as well as circulating total and endothelial microparticles (TMP/EMP) and soluble CD40 ligand (CD40L) [4].

Psychiatry related information on MAEA


High impact information on MAEA

  • We performed microarray analysis to identify genes involved in EMP release by the endothelial cell line HMEC-1 in response to thrombin [6].
  • The involvement of caspase-2 in ROCK-II activation independently of cell death points out a novel signaling pathway that emphasizes the proteolytic activity of caspase in EMP generation in response to cell activation [6].
  • Pharmacokinetics of EMP and the metabolites estramustine (EaM), estromustine (EoM), estradiol, and estrone were assessed after weeks 1 and 4 of treatment [2].
  • Compared with age-matched control subjects, type 1 diabetic patients presented significantly higher numbers of platelet and endothelial microparticles (PMP and EMP), total annexin V-positive blood cell microparticles (TMP), and increased levels of TMP-associated procoagulant activity [7].
  • Notably, plasma CD144-EMP identified a subpopulation of established CAD patients in DM subjects without typical anginal symptoms (OR 10.6, 95% CI 3.9 to 29.5, p < 0.001) [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of MAEA


Biological context of MAEA


Anatomical context of MAEA


Associations of MAEA with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: We characterized EMP using anti-CD144 (VE-Cadherin) antibody in various atherosclerosis-related cells and investigated the association between the levels of CD144-positive microparticles and hydrogen-peroxide-induced EC injury and acetylcholine-induced coronary vasomotion [8].
  • Measurement of Se-EMP may provide an additional and sensitive approach for assessing Se nutriture in human subjects [19].
  • Limiting dietary ascorbic acid to about 20 mg/d appeared to reduce the time-related retention of absorbed selenite and the size of Se-EMP [20].
  • The CD31+ EMP concentration showed a positive association with gadolinium enhancement in patients with MS [12].
  • A total of 82 patients with HRPC were evaluated during 751 treatment cycles, either with estramustine (EMP)/vinorelbine or with EMP/docetaxel [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MAEA

  • METHODS: Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) from 50 patients with MS (30 in exacerbation and 20 in remission) and 48 controls were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-CD31 and anti-CD51 (vitronectin receptor) antibodies, and two classes of EMP (CD31+ and CD51+) were assayed by flow cytometry [12].
  • RESULTS: EMP were not significantly influenced by conditioning regimens with non-myeloablative chemotherapy and 4 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) or by myeloablative regimens containing 12 Gy TBI [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Elevation of EMP during aGVHD might express severe endothelial cell injury within this complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and might serve as a diagnostic test for early differentiation of aGVHD from other transplanted related complications [3].
  • A treatment regimen was designed to improve systemic control by neoadjuvant targeting of hormone-sensitive and -insensitive micrometastatic disease and to improve local control by escalating the biologic effective dose to the prostate using estramustine (EMP) concurrently with radiotherapy [22].
  • Observations include: three consistent X-ray diffraction patterns; no resolution of cellular EMP by electron microscopy; increasing Ca/Mg, Ca/P during calcification [23].


  1. Stimulation of growth by both androgen and estrogen of the EMP-K1 transplantable tumor with androgen and estrogen receptors from human extramammary Paget's disease in nude mice. Nishi, M., Tashiro, M., Yoshida, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Phase I clinical and pharmacologic trial of intravenous estramustine phosphate. Hudes, G., Haas, N., Yeslow, G., Gillon, T., Gunnarsson, P.O., Ellman, M., Nordle, O., Eriksson, B., Miller, L., Cisar, L., Kopreski, M., Viaro, D., Hartley-Asp, B. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Pihusch, V., Rank, A., Steber, R., Pihusch, M., Pihusch, R., Toth, B., Hiller, E., Kolb, H.J. Transplantation (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Assessment of the coagulation profile in hemato-oncological patients receiving ATG-based conditioning treatment for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Inbal, A., Lubetsky, A., Shimoni, A., Dardik, R., Sela, B.A., Eskaraev, R., Levi, I., Tov, N.S., Nagler, A. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. The effect of physician education on the rates of donation request and tissue donation. Riker, R.R., White, B.W. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Thrombin-induced endothelial microparticle generation: identification of a novel pathway involving ROCK-II activation by caspase-2. Sapet, C., Simoncini, S., Loriod, B., Puthier, D., Sampol, J., Nguyen, C., Dignat-George, F., Anfosso, F. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients display different patterns of cellular microparticles. Sabatier, F., Darmon, P., Hugel, B., Combes, V., Sanmarco, M., Velut, J.G., Arnoux, D., Charpiot, P., Freyssinet, J.M., Oliver, C., Sampol, J., Dignat-George, F. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Elevated levels of VE-cadherin-positive endothelial microparticles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Koga, H., Sugiyama, S., Kugiyama, K., Watanabe, K., Fukushima, H., Tanaka, T., Sakamoto, T., Yoshimura, M., Jinnouchi, H., Ogawa, H. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential uptake of estramustine phosphate metabolites and its correlation with the levels of estramustine binding protein in prostate tumor tissue. Walz, P.H., Björk, P., Gunnarsson, P.O., Edman, K., Hartley-Asp, B. Clin. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Estramustine phosphate (estracyt) following androgens in men with refractory stage D2 prostate cancer. Boccardo, F., Decensi, A., Guarneri, D., Martorana, G., Giberti, C., Giuliani, L. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Docetaxel-based chemotherapy as second-line treatment for paclitaxel-based chemotherapy-resistant hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a pilot study. Urakami, S., Yoshino, T., Kikuno, N., Imai, S., Honda, S., Yoneda, T., Kishi, H., Shigeno, K., Shiina, H., Igawa, M. Urology (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Elevated plasma endothelial microparticles in multiple sclerosis. Minagar, A., Jy, W., Jimenez, J.J., Sheremata, W.A., Mauro, L.M., Mao, W.W., Horstman, L.L., Ahn, Y.S. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Epithelial membrane protein-2 and epithelial membrane protein-3: two novel members of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene family. Taylor, V., Suter, U. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Accumulation of estramustine and estromustine in adipose tissue of rats and humans. Gunnarsson, P.O., Andersson, S.B., Sandberg, A.A., Ellman, M. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Red blood cell antioxidant and iron status in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Fiorelli, G., De Feo, T.M., Duca, L., Tavazzi, D., Nava, I., Fargion, S., Cappellini, M.D. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. A novel scintillation proximity assay for fatty acid amide hydrolase compatible with inhibitor screening. Wang, Y., Xu, J., Uveges, A., Ramarao, M.K., Rogers, K.E., Jones, P.G. Anal. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Microparticles from patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and sepsis support coagulation through multiple mechanisms. Joop, K., Berckmans, R.J., Nieuwland, R., Berkhout, J., Romijn, F.P., Hack, C.E., Sturk, A. Thromb. Haemost. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. The Dukhin-Deryaguin equation for the electrophoretic mobility in monovalent electrolytes with arbitrary ion mobilities. Egorova, E.M. Electrophoresis (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Experimental selenium restriction in healthy adult humans: changes in selenium metabolism studied with stable-isotope methodology. Martin, R.F., Janghorbani, M., Young, V.R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Ascorbic acid-selenite interactions in humans studied with an oral dose of 74SeO3(2-). Martin, R.F., Young, V.R., Blumberg, J., Janghorbani, M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Docetaxel induces apoptosis in hormone refractory prostate carcinomas during multiple treatment cycles. Kramer, G., Schwarz, S., Hägg, M., Havelka, A.M., Linder, S. Br. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Neoadjuvant estramustine and etoposide followed by concurrent estramustine and definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: feasibility and preliminary results. Ben-Josef, E., Porter, A.T., Han, S., Mertens, W., Chuba, P., Fontana, J., Hussain, M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Pre-apatitic mineral deposition in Bacterionema matruchotii. Boyan-Salyers, B.D., Vogel, J.J., Ennever, J. J. Dent. Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
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