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Chemical Compound Review

Gadolinium-159     gadolinium

Synonyms: AC1L4Z44, 14041-42-0, Gadolinium, isotope of mass 159
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Disease relevance of gadolinium


Psychiatry related information on gadolinium


High impact information on gadolinium

  • The original finding by Dos Remedios and Dickens was that skeletal muscle actin forms microcrystals and tubes in the presence of the trivalent lanthanide gadolinium (Gd3+) [10].
  • Block of stretch-activated ion channels in Xenopus oocytes by gadolinium and calcium ions [11].
  • MEASURES: Each hospital was telephoned and asked their price and waiting time for 7 services: magnetic resonance imaging of the head without gadolinium; a screening mammogram; a 12-lead electrocardiogram; a prothrombin time measurement; a session of hemodialysis; a screening colonoscopy; and a total knee replacement [12].
  • Another FBH mutation, Y218S, had an EC50[Ca2+]o of > 50 mM but had only a mildly attenuated response to gadolinium, while the FBH mutations, R680C and P747fs, were unresponsive to either calcium or gadolinium [13].
  • While channel mechanosensitivity and osmotically evoked changes in cell volume are not affected by gadolinium, similar concentrations of the lanthanide inhibit cation permeation through the single channels and macroscopic osmoreceptor potentials [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of gadolinium


Biological context of gadolinium


Anatomical context of gadolinium


Associations of gadolinium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of gadolinium

  • Amiloride and gadolinium, which block mechanosensation in vivo, inhibited RPK channels [32].
  • Multiple sclerosis patients with high mean serum gelatinase B levels had significantly more T1-weighted gadolinium-enhancing MRI lesions than those with mean levels within the control range [33].
  • In addition, calcium, magnesium, strontium, aluminum, gadolinium, and the calcimimetic NPS 568 resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of GPRC6A overexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells 293 cells [34].
  • Four patients with gadolinium enhancement on MRI had the most pronounced drop in gelatinase B and uPA [35].
  • Because of the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast enhancement provided by gadolinium, this derivative should enable the in vivo MR imaging of individual amyloid plaques in the brains of AD animals or patients to allow for early diagnosis and also provide a direct measure of the efficacy of anti-amyloid therapies currently being developed [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of gadolinium

  • Expression of mutant and wild-type receptors was assessed by Western analysis, and the effects of the mutation on extracellular calcium (Ca2+(o)) and gadolinium (Gd3+(o)) elicited increases in the cytosolic calcium concentration (Ca2+(i)) were examined in fura-2-loaded cells using dual wavelength fluorimetry [37].
  • Intravenous chelated gadolinium as a contrast agent in NMR imaging of cerebral tumours [38].
  • To investigate the prognostic value of gadolinium-enhanced MRI, we did a meta-analysis of longitudinal MRI studies [3].
  • RESULTS: Although accuracy varied greatly for all diagnostic modalities, summary ROC curves found that computed tomography angiography and gadolinium-enhanced, three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography performed significantly better than the other diagnostic tests [39].
  • Tumor perfusion, as measured by the first-order rate constant of gadolinium plasma to tissue transfer during DCE-MRI studies, was found to decrease in eight of 10 patients [40].


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  2. The use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to identify reversible myocardial dysfunction. Kim, R.J., Wu, E., Rafael, A., Chen, E.L., Parker, M.A., Simonetti, O., Klocke, F.J., Bonow, R.O., Judd, R.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Predictive value of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for relapse rate and changes in disability or impairment in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Gadolinium MRI Meta-analysis Group. Kappos, L., Moeri, D., Radue, E.W., Schoetzau, A., Schweikert, K., Barkhof, F., Miller, D., Guttmann, C.R., Weiner, H.L., Gasperini, C., Filippi, M. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Virtual colonoscopy with magnetic resonance imaging: in vitro evaluation of a new concept. Schoenenberger, A.W., Bauerfeind, P., Krestin, G.P., Debatin, J.F. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular targeting of Alzheimer's amyloid plaques for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Poduslo, J.F., Wengenack, T.M., Curran, G.L., Wisniewski, T., Sigurdsson, E.M., Macura, S.I., Borowski, B.J., Jack, C.R. Neurobiol. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Mood disorders and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in multiple sclerosis: association with cerebral inflammation. Fassbender, K., Schmidt, R., Mössner, R., Kischka, U., Kühnen, J., Schwartz, A., Hennerici, M. Arch. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Gadolinium-enhanced MR findings in a pediatric case of Wernicke encephalopathy. Harter, S.B., Nokes, S.R. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Correlates of cognitive impairment and depressive mood disorder in multiple sclerosis. Möller, A., Wiedemann, G., Rohde, U., Backmund, H., Sonntag, A. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Hepatic magnetic resonance imaging: new techniques and contrast agents. Mahfouz, A.E., Hamm, B., Taupitz, M. Endoscopy. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Structure of crystalline actin sheets. Aebi, U., Smith, P.R., Isenberg, G., Pollard, T.D. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Block of stretch-activated ion channels in Xenopus oocytes by gadolinium and calcium ions. Yang, X.C., Sachs, F. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Shopping around for hospital services: a comparison of the United States and Canada. Bell, C.M., Crystal, M., Detsky, A.S., Redelmeier, D.A. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Functional characterization of calcium-sensing receptor mutations expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Pearce, S.H., Bai, M., Quinn, S.J., Kifor, O., Brown, E.M., Thakker, R.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Gadolinium uncouples mechanical detection and osmoreceptor potential in supraoptic neurons. Oliet, S.H., Bourque, C.W. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Kupffer cell engulfment of apoptotic bodies stimulates death ligand and cytokine expression. Canbay, A., Feldstein, A.E., Higuchi, H., Werneburg, N., Grambihler, A., Bronk, S.F., Gores, G.J. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Ibuprofen does not suppress active multiple sclerosis lesions on gadolinium-enhanced MR images. Barkhof, F., van Waesberghe, J.H., Uitdehaag, B.M., Polman, C.H. Ann. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Minocycline reduces gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging lesions in multiple sclerosis. Metz, L.M., Zhang, Y., Yeung, M., Patry, D.G., Bell, R.B., Stoian, C.A., Yong, V.W., Patten, S.B., Duquette, P., Antel, J.P., Mitchell, J.R. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatocyte transplantation activates hepatic stellate cells with beneficial modulation of cell engraftment in the rat. Benten, D., Kumaran, V., Joseph, B., Schattenberg, J., Popov, Y., Schuppan, D., Gupta, S. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of right ventricular infarction by gadolinium DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Sato, H., Murakami, Y., Shimada, T., Ochiai, K., Kitamura, J., Sano, K., Morioka, S. Eur. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Kupffer cells participate in early clearance of syngeneic hepatocytes transplanted in the rat liver. Joseph, B., Malhi, H., Bhargava, K.K., Palestro, C.J., McCuskey, R.S., Gupta, S. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Motexafin gadolinium (Gd-Tex) selectively induces apoptosis in HIV-1 infected CD4+ T helper cells. Perez, O.D., Nolan, G.P., Magda, D., Miller, R.A., Herzenberg, L.A., Herzenberg, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Physiological changes in extracellular calcium concentration directly control osteoblast function in the absence of calciotropic hormones. Dvorak, M.M., Siddiqua, A., Ward, D.T., Carter, D.H., Dallas, S.L., Nemeth, E.F., Riccardi, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-DTPA for detecting cardiac transplant rejection in rats. Konstam, M.A., Aronovitz, M.J., Runge, V.M., Kaufman, D.M., Brockway, B.A., Isner, J.M., Katzen, N.A., Dresdale, A.R., Diehl, J.T., Kaplan, E. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Gadolinium inhibits mechanoelectrical transduction in rabbit carotid baroreceptors. Implication of stretch-activated channels. Hajduczok, G., Chapleau, M.W., Ferlic, R.J., Mao, H.Z., Abboud, F.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of hepatocytes in direct clearance of lipopolysaccharide in rats. Mimura, Y., Sakisaka, S., Harada, M., Sata, M., Tanikawa, K. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Preliminary evidence from magnetic resonance imaging for reduction in disease activity after lymphocyte depletion in multiple sclerosis. Moreau, T., Thorpe, J., Miller, D., Moseley, I., Hale, G., Waldmann, H., Clayton, D., Wing, M., Scolding, N., Compston, A. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Hepatic free radical production after cold storage: Kupffer cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms in rats. Brass, C.A., Roberts, T.G. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Ischemic preconditioning protects hepatocytes via reactive oxygen species derived from Kupffer cells in rats. Tejima, K., Arai, M., Ikeda, H., Tomiya, T., Yanase, M., Inoue, Y., Nagashima, K., Nishikawa, T., Watanabe, N., Omata, M., Fujiwara, K. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Quantitative measurement of regional blood flow with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate bolus track NMR imaging in cerebral infarcts in rats: validation with the iodo[14C]antipyrine technique. Wittlich, F., Kohno, K., Mies, G., Norris, D.G., Hoehn-Berlage, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Kupffer cell-dependent TNF-alpha signaling mediates injury in the arterialized small-for-size liver transplantation in the mouse. Tian, Y., Jochum, W., Georgiev, P., Moritz, W., Graf, R., Clavien, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunologic therapy of multiple sclerosis. Arnason, B.G. Annu. Rev. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Ripped pocket and pickpocket, novel Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunits expressed in early development and in mechanosensory neurons. Adams, C.M., Anderson, M.G., Motto, D.G., Price, M.P., Johnson, W.A., Welsh, M.J. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Serum gelatinase B, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels in multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal clinical and MRI study. Lee, M.A., Palace, J., Stabler, G., Ford, J., Gearing, A., Miller, K. Brain (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Identification of a novel extracellular cation-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor. Pi, M., Faber, P., Ekema, G., Jackson, P.D., Ting, A., Wang, N., Fontilla-Poole, M., Mays, R.W., Brunden, K.R., Harrington, J.J., Quarles, L.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of steroids on CSF matrix metalloproteinases in multiple sclerosis: relation to blood-brain barrier injury. Rosenberg, G.A., Dencoff, J.E., Correa, N., Reiners, M., Ford, C.C. Neurology (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Design and chemical synthesis of a magnetic resonance contrast agent with enhanced in vitro binding, high blood-brain barrier permeability, and in vivo targeting to Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques. Poduslo, J.F., Curran, G.L., Peterson, J.A., McCormick, D.J., Fauq, A.H., Khan, M.A., Wengenack, T.M. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Markedly reduced activity of mutant calcium-sensing receptor with an inserted Alu element from a kindred with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism. Bai, M., Janicic, N., Trivedi, S., Quinn, S.J., Cole, D.E., Brown, E.M., Hendy, G.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Intravenous chelated gadolinium as a contrast agent in NMR imaging of cerebral tumours. Carr, D.H., Brown, J., Bydder, G.M., Weinmann, H.J., Speck, U., Thomas, D.J., Young, I.R. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Diagnostic tests for renal artery stenosis in patients suspected of having renovascular hypertension: a meta-analysis. Vasbinder, G.B., Nelemans, P.J., Kessels, A.G., Kroon, A.A., de Leeuw, P.W., van Engelshoven, J.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Phase I trial of the antivascular agent combretastatin A4 phosphate on a 5-day schedule to patients with cancer: magnetic resonance imaging evidence for altered tumor blood flow. Stevenson, J.P., Rosen, M., Sun, W., Gallagher, M., Haller, D.G., Vaughn, D., Giantonio, B., Zimmer, R., Petros, W.P., Stratford, M., Chaplin, D., Young, S.L., Schnall, M., O'Dwyer, P.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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