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Gene Review

GLMN  -  glomulin, FKBP associated protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FAP, FAP48, FAP68, FK506-binding protein-associated protein, FKBP-associated protein, ...
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Disease relevance of GLMN


High impact information on GLMN


Biological context of GLMN

  • We report that overexpression of FAP48 results in the inhibition of cellular proliferation as does the exposure of Jurkat T cells to FK506 [6].
  • Recent studies have shown that mutations in the glomulin gene (GLMN) on chromosome 1p21-22 are responsible for familial GVMs [7].
  • We also identified linkage disequilibrium that allowed a narrowing of this VMGLOM locus to 1.48 Mb [2].
  • Here we show that VMs with glomus cells (known as "glomangiomas"), inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in five families, are not linked to 9p21 but, instead, link to a new locus, on 1p21-p22, called "VMGLOM" (LOD score 12.70 at recombination fraction.00) [8].
  • We also demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, by Forster resonance energy transfer, that this C-terminal region is required for interaction with FAN (FKBP-associated NAC), a new member of the plant-specific family of NAC transcription factors [9].

Anatomical context of GLMN

  • Ligand-regulated binding of FAP68 to the hepatocyte growth factor receptor [10].
  • Here we show that epithelial cells, in which the HGF receptor is naturally expressed, contain FAP68 and not FAP48 proteins [10].
  • We have investigated the adherence of a sputum isolate of MAC to the mucosa of organ cultures constructed with human tissue and the contribution of M. avium fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) to the process [11].
  • Amyloid deposits were noted in seven of the 11 biopsy specimens from FAP patients, but otherwise the duodenum was histologically normal in both groups [3].

Associations of GLMN with chemical compounds

  • Indeed, FAP68 does not interact with related tyrosine kinases of the Met and insulin receptor families [10].
  • Mutation of proline 219 to alanine leads to a loss of interaction indicating that a cysteinyl prolyl site might be responsible for the binding of FAP48 to FKBPs [12].
  • Familial amyloid protein (FAP), prealbumin type, can stand 2 hr of alkaline guanidine treatment without losing its ability to stain with Congo red [13].

Physical interactions of GLMN

  • FAP68 interacts specifically with the inactive form of HGF receptor, such as a kinase-defective receptor or a dephosphorylated wild type receptor [10].

Regulatory relationships of GLMN


Other interactions of GLMN


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLMN

  • Stromal FAP was found to correlate inversely with tumor stage (semiquantitative, P = 0.01; intensity, P = 0.009) and with tumor size of the tumor xenograft model (correlation coefficient, -0.61; P = 0.047), suggesting that stromal FAP may have a greater role in the early development of tumors [4].
  • FAP overexpression in human tumor cells has been shown to promote tumor growth in animal models, and clinical trials targeting FAP enzymatic activity have been initiated [4].
  • SDS-PAGE analyses demonstrated that neither FAP nor APCE cleaves collagen I [16].
  • This approach may play a role in inducing tolerance for solid organ transplantation and in utilizing the GVM effect to treat solid tumors that are not fully responsive to myeloablative cytotoxic regimens [17].
  • Thus, efforts to separate GVM and GVHD are still required in order to improve the outcome of myeloma patients receiving allogeneic transplantation [18].


  1. Immunophilins, Refsum disease, and lupus nephritis: the peroxisomal enzyme phytanoyl-COA alpha-hydroxylase is a new FKBP-associated protein. Chambraud, B., Radanyi, C., Camonis, J.H., Rajkowski, K., Schumacher, M., Baulieu, E.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutations in a novel factor, glomulin, are responsible for glomuvenous malformations ("glomangiomas"). Brouillard, P., Boon, L.M., Mulliken, J.B., Enjolras, O., Ghassibé, M., Warman, M.L., Tan, O.T., Olsen, B.R., Vikkula, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Impact of familial amyloid associated polyneuropathy on duodenal endocrine cells. el-Salhy, M., Suhr, O., Stenling, R., Wilander, E., Grimelius, L. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical implications of fibroblast activation protein in patients with colon cancer. Henry, L.R., Lee, H.O., Lee, J.S., Klein-Szanto, A., Watts, P., Ross, E.A., Chen, W.T., Cheng, J.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Targeting tumor-associated fibroblasts improves cancer chemotherapy by increasing intratumoral drug uptake. Loeffler, M., Krüger, J.A., Niethammer, A.G., Reisfeld, R.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The FKBP-associated protein FAP48 is an antiproliferative molecule and a player in T cell activation that increases IL2 synthesis. Krummrei, U., Baulieu, E.E., Chambraud, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutation analysis in Irish families with glomuvenous malformations. O'Hagan, A.H., Maloney, F., Buckley, C., Bingham, E.A., Walsh, M.Y., McKenna, K.E., McGibbon, D., Hughes, A.E. Br. J. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. A gene for inherited cutaneous venous anomalies ("glomangiomas") localizes to chromosome 1p21-22. Boon, L.M., Brouillard, P., Irrthum, A., Karttunen, L., Warman, M.L., Rudolph, R., Mulliken, J.B., Olsen, B.R., Vikkula, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. The C terminus of the immunophilin PASTICCINO1 is required for plant development and for interaction with a NAC-like transcription factor. Smyczynski, C., Roudier, F., Gissot, L., Vaillant, E., Grandjean, O., Morin, H., Masson, T., Bellec, Y., Geelen, D., Faure, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Ligand-regulated binding of FAP68 to the hepatocyte growth factor receptor. Grisendi, S., Chambraud, B., Gout, I., Comoglio, P.M., Crepaldi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of Mycobacterium avium complex fibronectin attachment protein in adherence to the human respiratory mucosa. Middleton, A.M., Chadwick, M.V., Nicholson, A.G., Dewar, A., Groger, R.K., Brown, E.J., Wilson, R. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Mutation of FKBP associated protein 48 (FAP48) at proline 219 disrupts the interaction with FKBP12 and FKBP52. Neye, H. Regul. Pept. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Methods for staining amyloid in tissues: a review. Elghetany, M.T., Saleem, A. Stain technology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. FAP48, a new protein that forms specific complexes with both immunophilins FKBP59 and FKBP12. Prevention by the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin. Chambraud, B., Radanyi, C., Camonis, J.H., Shazand, K., Rajkowski, K., Baulieu, E.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. FK506 binding protein associated with the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor). Jayaraman, T., Brillantes, A.M., Timerman, A.P., Fleischer, S., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Marks, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of fibroblast activation protein and alpha(2)-antiplasmin cleaving enzyme on collagen Types I, III, and IV. Christiansen, V.J., Jackson, K.W., Lee, K.N., McKee, P.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Current concepts in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Tabbara, I.A., Kairouz, S., Nahleh, Z., Mihalcea, A.M. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Graft vs. host disease and graft vs. myeloma effect after non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation. Pérez-Simón, J.A., Caballero, D., Mateos, M.V., San Miguel, J.F. Leuk. Lymphoma (2004) [Pubmed]
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