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Gene Review

Acp5  -  acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant

Mus musculus

Synonyms: T5ap, TR-AP, TRACP, TRAP, Tartrate-resistant acid ATPase, ...
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Disease relevance of Acp5

  • Anti-c-Fms mAb selectively and completely arrested the profound pathological osteoclastogenesis attending this condition, the significance of which is reflected by similar blunting of the in vivo bone resorption marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b) [1].
  • Mice lacking tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Acp 5) have disrupted endochondral ossification and mild osteopetrosis [2].
  • Mice lacking tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Acp 5) have disordered macrophage inflammatory responses and reduced clearance of the pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus [3].
  • Specifically, TRACP(-/-) mice had defective delayed hypersensitivity responses to picryl chloride and reduced proliferative responses to ovalbumin compared with wildtype mice [4].

High impact information on Acp5

  • Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP; a marker enzyme of osteoclasts)-positive cells appeared only when bone marrow cells were cultured in contact with OP6L7 cells and both rhM-CSF and 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3 were added [5].
  • Microscopic analyses showed an accumulation of osteopontin adjacent to actively resorbing osteoclasts of Acp5- and LAP/Acp5-deficient mice [6].
  • Overlapping functions of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Acp5) revealed by doubly deficient mice [6].
  • This is further supported by biochemical analyses that demonstrate strongly reduced dephosphorylation of osteopontin incubated with LAP/Acp5-deficient bone extracts [6].
  • To date, two lysosomal acid phosphatases are known to be expressed in cells of the monocyte/phagocyte lineage: the ubiquitously expressed lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-type 5 (Acp5) [6].

Biological context of Acp5

  • The binding sites for both of these factors have been identified, and they have been determined to be functional in regulating TRACP expression [7].
  • Increased mineralization density was observed in the long bones of older animals which showed modelling deformities at their extremities: heterozygotes and homozygous Acp 5 mutant mice had tissue that was more mineralized and occupied a greater proportion of the bone in all regions [2].
  • Animals homozygous for the null Acp 5 allele had progressive foreshortening and deformity of the long bones and axial skeleton but apparently normal tooth eruption and skull plate development, indicating a rôle for Acp 5 in endochondral ossification [2].
  • Osteoclast differentiation was determined by TRACP staining, and cell cycle regulation was determined by BrdU uptake and flow cytometric analysis [8].
  • Previous studies suggest that ROS generated by TRACP may participate in degradation of endocytosed bone matrix products in resorbing osteoclasts and degradation of foreign compounds during antigen presentation in activated macrophages [9].

Anatomical context of Acp5


Associations of Acp5 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Acp5


Other interactions of Acp5


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acp5


  1. M-CSF mediates TNF-induced inflammatory osteolysis. Kitaura, H., Zhou, P., Kim, H.J., Novack, D.V., Ross, F.P., Teitelbaum, S.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Mice lacking tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Acp 5) have disrupted endochondral ossification and mild osteopetrosis. Hayman, A.R., Jones, S.J., Boyde, A., Foster, D., Colledge, W.H., Carlton, M.B., Evans, M.J., Cox, T.M. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Mice lacking tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Acp 5) have disordered macrophage inflammatory responses and reduced clearance of the pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. Bune, A.J., Hayman, A.R., Evans, M.J., Cox, T.M. Immunology (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. TRACP Influences Th1 pathways by affecting dendritic cell function. Esfandiari, E., Bailey, M., Stokes, C.R., Cox, T.M., Evans, M.J., Hayman, A.R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Essential role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the osteoclast differentiation supported by stromal cells. Kodama, H., Nose, M., Niida, S., Yamasaki, A. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Overlapping functions of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Acp5) revealed by doubly deficient mice. Suter, A., Everts, V., Boyde, A., Jones, S.J., Lüllmann-Rauch, R., Hartmann, D., Hayman, A.R., Cox, T.M., Evans, M.J., Meister, T., von Figura, K., Saftig, P. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of the murine TRACP gene promoter. Cassady, A.I., Luchin, A., Ostrowski, M.C., Hume, D.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Osteoclast differentiation by RANKL requires NF-kappaB-mediated downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6). Ogasawara, T., Katagiri, M., Yamamoto, A., Hoshi, K., Takato, T., Nakamura, K., Tanaka, S., Okayama, H., Kawaguchi, H. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Macrophages overexpressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase show altered profile of free radical production and enhanced capacity of bacterial killing. Räisänen, S.R., Alatalo, S.L., Ylipahkala, H., Halleen, J.M., Cassady, A.I., Hume, D.A., Väänänen, H.K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Osteoclastic tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Acp 5): its localization to dendritic cells and diverse murine tissues. Hayman, A.R., Bune, A.J., Bradley, J.R., Rashbass, J., Cox, T.M. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Potential function for the ROS-generating activity of TRACP. Halleen, J.M., Räisänen, S.R., Alatalo, S.L., Väänänen, H.K. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase knockout mice. Hayman, A.R., Cox, T.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The bone marrow-derived stromal cell lines MC3T3-G2/PA6 and ST2 support osteoclast-like cell differentiation in cocultures with mouse spleen cells. Udagawa, N., Takahashi, N., Akatsu, T., Sasaki, T., Yamaguchi, A., Kodama, H., Martin, T.J., Suda, T. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Continuously applied compressive pressure induces bone resorption by a mechanism involving prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Imamura, K., Ozawa, H., Hiraide, T., Takahashi, N., Shibasaki, Y., Fukuhara, T., Suda, T. J. Cell. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein is a potent stimulator of osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation to the same extent as PTH in mouse marrow cultures. Akatsu, T., Takahashi, N., Udagawa, N., Sato, K., Nagata, N., Moseley, J.M., Martin, T.J., Suda, T. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Activin enhances osteoclast-like cell formation in vitro. Sakai, R., Eto, Y., Ohtsuka, M., Hirafuji, M., Shinoda, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Membrane-associated interleukin-1 promotes osteoclast-like cell formation in vitro. Nishihara, T., Takahashi, T., Ishihara, Y., Senpuku, H., Takahashi, N., Suda, T., Koga, T. Bone and mineral. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. RANKL coordinates cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation in osteoclasts through the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27KIP1 and p21CIP1. Sankar, U., Patel, K., Rosol, T.J., Ostrowski, M.C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Serotonin regulates osteoclast differentiation through its transporter. Battaglino, R., Fu, J., Späte, U., Ersoy, U., Joe, M., Sedaghat, L., Stashenko, P. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Self-assembled RANK induces osteoclastogenesis ligand-independently. Kanazawa, K., Kudo, A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning of an osteoblastic cell line involved in the formation of osteoclast-like cells. Yamashita, T., Asano, K., Takahashi, N., Akatsu, T., Udagawa, N., Sasaki, T., Martin, T.J., Suda, T. J. Cell. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Induction of calcitonin receptors by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in osteoclast-like multinucleated cells formed from mouse bone marrow cells. Takahashi, N., Akatsu, T., Sasaki, T., Nicholson, G.C., Moseley, J.M., Martin, T.J., Suda, T. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Properties and expression of human tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5a by monocyte-derived cells. Janckila, A.J., Parthasarathy, R.N., Parthasarathy, L.K., Seelan, R.S., Hsueh, Y.C., Rissanen, J., Alatalo, S.L., Halleen, J.M., Yam, L.T. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Demonstration of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in un-decalcified, glycolmethacrylate-embedded mouse bone: a possible marker for (pre)osteoclast identification. van de Wijngaert, F.P., Burger, E.H. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
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