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Gene Review

exf  -  exfoliative

Mus musculus

Synonyms: ex
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Disease relevance of exf


High impact information on exf


Chemical compound and disease context of exf


Biological context of exf


Anatomical context of exf


Associations of exf with chemical compounds


Other interactions of exf

  • We demonstrate this specific cleavage in cell culture, in neonatal mouse skin and with recombinant Dsg1, and conclude that Dsg1 is the specific receptor for exfoliative toxin A cleavage [2].
  • Substitution of any of the Tyr residues decreased exfoliative activity compared with that of native sETB (4,000 EU/ml) [22].
  • The ratio of 5'-nucleotidase to ATPase activity in the microvesicles indicated that cellular ecto-ATPase was conserved in the exfoliative process [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of exf

  • The F(ab')(2) fragment ELISA is superior to existing diagnostic systems because it is quantitative, which may be related to the severity of the condition, and can detect amounts of exfoliative toxin in the picogram range directly from serum [24].
  • The sensitivity and specificity of the EXT-RPLA were confirmed by the newborn mouse bioassay and a PCR assay for the structural genes for exfoliative toxin serotypes A and B (eta and etb, respectively) [20].
  • Detection of the exfoliative toxin is required for diagnosis; the newborn mouse bioassay is, therefore, usually performed [25].
  • However, rapid bedside confirmation is now possible with exfoliative cytology and frozen sections [26].
  • Body mass index did not differ significantly between patients with primary open-angle, exfoliative, and pigment-dispersion glaucoma and showed no correlation with the quantitative data of the meshwork [27].


  1. Skin exfoliation and purulent conjunctivitis in a new mutant-the exfoliative mouse. Kent, R.L., Lutzner, M.A., Smith, K.P. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Toxin in bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome targets desmoglein 1. Amagai, M., Matsuyoshi, N., Wang, Z.H., Andl, C., Stanley, J.R. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Desmosomes and disease: pemphigus and bullous impetigo. Payne, A.S., Hanakawa, Y., Amagai, M., Stanley, J.R. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Unique superantigen activity of staphylococcal exfoliative toxins. Monday, S.R., Vath, G.M., Ferens, W.A., Deobald, C., Rago, J.V., Gahr, P.J., Monie, D.D., Iandolo, J.J., Chapes, S.K., Davis, W.C., Ohlendorf, D.H., Schlievert, P.M., Bohach, G.A. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The V beta complementarity determining region 1 of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted T cell receptor is involved in the recognition of peptide/MHC I and superantigen/MHC II complex. Bellio, M., Lone, Y.C., de la Calle-Martin, O., Malissen, B., Abastado, J.P., Kourilsky, P. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Transplantation of T cell-mediated, lymphoreticular disease from the scurfy (sf) mouse. Godfrey, V.L., Rouse, B.T., Wilkinson, J.E. Am. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of the Staphylococcus aureus etd pathogenicity island which encodes a novel exfoliative toxin, ETD, and EDIN-B. Yamaguchi, T., Nishifuji, K., Sasaki, M., Fudaba, Y., Aepfelbacher, M., Takata, T., Ohara, M., Komatsuzawa, H., Amagai, M., Sugai, M. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Purification of protease from a mixture of exfoliative toxin and newborn-mouse epidermis. Ninomiya, J., Ito, Y., Takiuchi, I. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Purification of exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus and its antigenicity. Tanabe, T., Sato, H., Kuramoto, M., Saito, H. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification and characterization of different types of exfoliative toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. Johnson, A.D., Spero, L., Cades, J.S., de Cicco, B.T. Infect. Immun. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Exfoliative dermatitis in an infant. Association with enterotoxin F-producing staphylococci. Chesney, P.J., Jaucian, R.M., McDonald, R.A., Kapral, F.A., Bergdoll, M.S. Am. J. Dis. Child. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and expression of the exfoliative toxin B gene from Staphylococcus aureus. Jackson, M.P., Iandolo, J.J. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. A battery of potential alternatives to the Draize test: uridine uptake inhibition, morphological cytotoxicity, macrophage chemotaxis and exfoliative cytology. Shopsis, C., Borenfreund, E., Walberg, J., Stark, D.M. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Pemphigus as a paradigm of autoimmunity and cell adhesion. Amagai, M. The Keio journal of medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Recombinant Staphylococcus aureus exfoliative toxins are not bacterial superantigens. Plano, L.R., Gutman, D.M., Woischnik, M., Collins, C.M. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Superantigenic staphylococcal exotoxins induce T-cell proliferation in the presence of Langerhans cells or class II-bearing keratinocytes and stimulate keratinocytes to produce T-cell-activating cytokines. Tokura, Y., Yagi, J., O'Malley, M., Lewis, J.M., Takigawa, M., Edelson, R.L., Tigelaar, R.E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Murine macrophage activation by staphylococcal exotoxins. Fleming, S.D., Iandolo, J.J., Chapes, S.K. Infect. Immun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Susceptibility of various animals and cultured cells to exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus. Sato, H., Kuramoto, M., Tanabe, T., Saito, H. Vet. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of staphylococcal exfoliative toxin by slide latex agglutination. Murono, K., Fujita, K., Yoshioka, H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Exfoliative toxin detection using reversed passive latex agglutination: clinical and epidemiologic applications. Kawabata, A., Ichiyama, S., Iinuma, Y., Hasegawa, Y., Ohta, M., Shimokata, K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome I. Purification of exfoliatin and maternal transmission of neutralizing ability against exfoliatin. Nishioka, K., Nakano, T., Hirao, N., Asada, Y. J. Dermatol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. New evidence that the Tyr-157 and Tyr-159 residues of staphylococcal exfoliative toxin B are essential for its toxicity. Sakurai, S., Suzuki, H., Saito, S., Konishi, Y., Machida, K., Kohno, M. Microbiol. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Exfoliation of membrane ecto-enzymes in the form of micro-vesicles. Trams, E.G., Lauter, C.J., Salem, N., Heine, U. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Development and evaluation of detection systems for staphylococcal exfoliative toxin A responsible for scalded-skin syndrome. Ladhani, S., Robbie, S., Garratt, R.C., Chapple, D.S., Joannou, C.L., Evans, R.W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in adults. A clinical review illustrated with a new case. Cribier, B., Piemont, Y., Grosshans, E. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. Clinical features, pathogenesis, and recent microbiological and biochemical developments. Elias, P.M., Fritsch, P., Epstein, E.H. Archives of dermatology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Individual factors influencing trabecular morphology in glaucoma patients undergoing filtration surgery. Dietlein, T.S., Lüke, C., Jacobi, P.C., Krieglstein, G.K. Journal of glaucoma. (2002) [Pubmed]
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