The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Gc  -  group specific component

Mus musculus

Synonyms: DBP, Gc-globulin, Group-specific component, VDB, Vitamin D-binding protein, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Gc


Psychiatry related information on Gc

  • Mice homozygous for a DBP-null allele display less locomotor activity and free-run with a shorter period than otherwise isogenic wild-type animals [4].

High impact information on Gc

  • We show that 25-(OH) vitamin D3 in complex with its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, is filtered through the glomerulus and reabsorbed in the proximal tubules by the endocytic receptor megalin [5].
  • BACKGROUND: The vitamin D(3)-binding protein (Gc protein)-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) activates tumoricidal macrophages against a variety of cancers indiscriminately [6].
  • Peak steady-state mRNA levels of the vitamin D-dependent calbindin-D9K gene were induced by 1,25(OH)2D more rapidly in the DBP-/- mice [1].
  • A line of mice deficient in vitamin D binding protein (DBP) was generated by targeted mutagenesis to establish a model for analysis of DBP's biological functions in vitamin D metabolism and action [1].
  • Thus, the role of DBP is to maintain stable serum stores of vitamin D metabolites and modulate the rates of its bioavailability, activation, and end-organ responsiveness [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gc

  • Phthalate esters with short alkyl chains, such as di-ethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DPP), and di-butyl phthalate (DBP), have adjuvant effects on an FITC-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model [7].

Biological context of Gc


Anatomical context of Gc

  • Initial studies revealed a marked defect in the ability of these DBP(-/-) mice to recruit cells to the peritoneum after localized thioglycolate injection [10].
  • To verify prior in vitro and cell-based observations supporting this role, we assessed the ability of a recently developed DBP-null mouse line to recruit neutrophils and macrophages to a site of chemical inflammation [10].
  • The interrupted DBP allele had been generated by homologous recombination in 129X1/SvJ embryonic stem cells and these cells were subsequently used to generate a line of DBP(-/-) (null) mice [10].
  • Analysis of intercellular signal transmission among nonadherent (B and T) cells revealed that lyso-PC-treated B cells modify Gc protein to yield a proactivating factor, which can be converted by T cells to the macrophage-activating factor [11].
  • Identification of the serum factor required for in vitro activation of macrophages. Role of vitamin D3-binding protein (group specific component, Gc) in lysophospholipid activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages [12].

Associations of Gc with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Gc


Other interactions of Gc


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gc


  1. Osteopathy and resistance to vitamin D toxicity in mice null for vitamin D binding protein. Safadi, F.F., Thornton, P., Magiera, H., Hollis, B.W., Gentile, M., Haddad, J.G., Liebhaber, S.A., Cooke, N.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Proximal tubule endocytic apparatus as the specific renal uptake mechanism for vitamin D-binding protein/25-(OH)D3 complex (Review Article). Negri, A.L. Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Prognostic utility of serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and immunosuppression resulted from deglycosylation of serum Gc protein in oral cancer patients. Yamamoto, N., Naraparaju, V.R., Urade, M. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. The DBP gene is expressed according to a circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and influences circadian behavior. Lopez-Molina, L., Conquet, F., Dubois-Dauphin, M., Schibler, U. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. An endocytic pathway essential for renal uptake and activation of the steroid 25-(OH) vitamin D3. Nykjaer, A., Dragun, D., Walther, D., Vorum, H., Jacobsen, C., Herz, J., Melsen, F., Christensen, E.I., Willnow, T.E. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of vitamin D(3)-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) on angiogenesis. Kanda, S., Mochizuki, Y., Miyata, Y., Kanetake, H., Yamamoto, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of phthalate esters on dendritic cell subsets and interleukin-4 production in fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity. Maruyama, T., Shiba, T., Iizuka, H., Matsuda, T., Kurohane, K., Imai, Y. Microbiol. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Linkage between vitamin D-binding protein and alpha-fetoprotein in the mouse. Guan, X.J., Arhin, G., Leung, J., Tilghman, S.M. Mamm. Genome (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Group-specific component (Gc) proteins bind vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Daiger, S.P., Schanfield, M.S., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. 129X1/SvJ mouse strain has a novel defect in inflammatory cell recruitment. White, P., Liebhaber, S.A., Cooke, N.E. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Vitamin D3 binding protein (group-specific component) is a precursor for the macrophage-activating signal factor from lysophosphatidylcholine-treated lymphocytes. Yamamoto, N., Homma, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification of the serum factor required for in vitro activation of macrophages. Role of vitamin D3-binding protein (group specific component, Gc) in lysophospholipid activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages. Yamamoto, N., Homma, S., Millman, I. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of plasma-binding proteins in the cellular uptake of lipophilic vitamins and steroids. Andreassen, T.K. Horm. Metab. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Transcortin and vitamin D-binding protein levels in mouse serum. Faict, D., De Moor, P., Bouillon, R., Heyns, W., Heiniger, H.J., Corrow, D., Lesaffre, E. J. Endocrinol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Mapping of panda plumage color locus on the microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail. Miwa, M., Inoue-Murayama, M., Kobayashi, N., Kayang, B.B., Mizutani, M., Takahashi, H., Ito, S. BMC Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Binding of a monoclonal antibody E12 to Gc globulin (vitamin D-binding protein) is inhibited by actin. Osawa, M., Sabbatini, A.R., Erukhimov, J., Werner, P.A., Galbraith, R.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. A monoclonal antibody against human vitamin-D-binding protein for the analysis of genetic variation in the group-specific component system (Gc). Hoffmann, R., Braun, A., Cleve, H. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): isoelectric focusing pattern and tumoricidal activity. Mohamad, S.B., Nagasawa, H., Sasaki, H., Uto, Y., Nakagawa, Y., Kawashima, K., Hori, H. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Association of the macrophage activating factor (MAF) precursor activity with polymorphism in vitamin D-binding protein. Nagasawa, H., Sasaki, H., Uto, Y., Kubo, S., Hori, H. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities