The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Galk1  -  galactokinase 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AA409894, GALK, GALK1, GK, Galactokinase, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Galk1


High impact information on Galk1


Chemical compound and disease context of Galk1


Biological context of Galk1

  • The TK-/- mutant frequency of strain LY-R83, which is monosomic for chromosome 11 and thus hemizygous for the tk and gk genes, was only 50% of the mutant frequency of strain LY-R16 which is heterozygous for the tk gene [8].
  • The possibility that the loss of GLK activity is not indicative of LOH at the Glk gene under the conditions of the present experiments is discussed [9].
  • The frequency of mutants losing GLK activity was low, particularly in cells irradiated in the S or G2/M phases [9].
  • From the pattern of cotransfer, a tentative gene ordering of CENTROMERE-GALK-TK1-GAA on human chromosome 17 was deduced [10].
  • In screening the sequences of the genes involved in lactose assimilation, we found that the galactokinase gene Glk contains four potential Egr-1 binding sites in its proximal promoter [11].

Anatomical context of Galk1


Associations of Galk1 with chemical compounds

  • As expected, galactose was very poorly metabolized in GK-deficient mice [2].
  • The chimpanzee thymidine kinase and galactokinase genes were assigned to PTR 19 (HS 17), further confirming the homology to HS 17 [15].
  • When these clones were backselected in medium containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine, both this chromosome and the monkey galactokinase activity were lost [14].
  • There was no difference in sensitivity to the G-kinase I activator 8-para-chlorophenylthio-cGMP or to cromakalim [16].
  • The functional activity of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase) and PDE V was also unchanged, suggesting that sGC is the site of up-regulation [17].

Other interactions of Galk1

  • The frequency of mutants with LOH at both Tk1 and D11Nds7 with no loss of GLK activity was high in all cell populations: There was no significant difference in the observed frequency of these mutants between the populations [9].
  • Developmental regulation of galactokinase in suckling mouse liver by the Egr-1 transcription factor [11].
  • Umph-2 cosegregated with the mouse galactokinase (Glk) gene in 23 of the 24 hybrids and showed at least four discordances with all other mouse marker isozymes examined [18].
  • Analysis of 15 other biochemical markers located on 12 of the mink chromosomes revealed the activities of mink galactokinase (a syntenic marker) in 5 transformed clones, and that of mink aconitase-1 (the marker of mink chromosome 12) in 1 clone [19].
  • We found that type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), which is widely expressed in the brain, mediated NO- and cGMP-induced activation of the fos promoter in cells of neuronal and glial origin; the enzyme was ineffective in regulating gene expression in fibroblast-like cells [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Galk1


  1. Activity of thymidylate synthetase, thymidine kinase and galactokinase in primary and xenografted human colorectal cancers in relation to their chromosomal patterns. Bardot, V., Luccioni, C., Lefrançois, D., Muleris, M., Dutrillaux, B. Int. J. Cancer (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. A mouse model of galactose-induced cataracts. Ai, Y., Zheng, Z., O'Brien-Jenkins, A., Bernard, D.J., Wynshaw-Boris, T., Ning, C., Reynolds, R., Segal, S., Huang, K., Stambolian, D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Ribozyme-mediated attenuation of pancreatic beta-cell glucokinase expression in transgenic mice results in impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion. Efrat, S., Leiser, M., Wu, Y.J., Fusco-DeMane, D., Emran, O.A., Surana, M., Jetton, T.L., Magnuson, M.A., Weir, G., Fleischer, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. In vivo metabolism and UTP-depleting action of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-galactose. Grün, B.R., Berger, U., Oberdorfer, F., Hull, W.E., Ostertag, H., Keppler, D. Adv. Enzyme Regul. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Multigene family for sarcomeric myosin heavy chain in mouse and human DNA: localization on a single chromosome. Leinwand, L.A., Fournier, R.E., Nadal-Ginard, B., Shows, T.B. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Cotransfer of linked eukaryotic genes and efficient transfer of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase by DNA-mediated gene transfer. Peterson, J.L., McBride, O.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Correlation of gene expression and transformation frequency with the presence of an enhancing sequence in the transforming DNA. Berg, P.E., Anderson, W.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Induction of multilocus lesions by UVC-radiation in mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts. Evans, H.H., Ricanati, M., Di Salvo, C., Horng, M.F., Menci, J. Mutat. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of multilocus mutations at the Tk1 locus after X irradiation of L5178Y cells at different times in the mitotic cycle. Evans, H.H., Mencl, J., Ricanati, M., Horng, M.F., Chaudhry, M.A., Jiang, Q., Hozier, J., Liechty, M. Radiat. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cotransfer of syntenic human genes into mouse cells using isolated metaphase chromosomes or cellular DNA. de Jonge, A.J., de Smit, S., Kroos, M.A., Reuser, A.J. Hum. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Developmental regulation of galactokinase in suckling mouse liver by the Egr-1 transcription factor. Yang, F., Agulian, T., Sudati, J.E., Rhoads, D.B., Levitsky, L.L. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Cotransfer of two linked human genes into cultured mouse cells. Willecke, K., Lange, R., Krüger, A., Reber, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Synteny of the genes for thymidine kinase and galactokinase in the mouse and their assignment to mouse chromosome 11. McBreen, P., Orkwiszewski, K.G., Chern, C.J., Mellman, W.J., Croce, C.M. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Linkage relationship between the genes for thymidine kinase and galactokinase in different primates. Orkwiszewski, K.G., Tedesco, T.A., Mellman, W.J., Croce, C.M. Somatic Cell Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic homology between man and the chimpanzee: syntenic relationships of genes for galactokinase and thymidine kinase and adenovirus-12-induced gaps using chimpanzee-mouse somatic cell hybrids. Chen, S., McDougall, J.K., Creagan, R.P., Lewis, V., Ruddle, F.H. Somatic Cell Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased nitrovasodilator sensitivity in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice: role of soluble guanylyl cyclase. Brandes, R.P., Kim, D., Schmitz-Winnenthal, F.H., Amidi, M., Gödecke, A., Mülsch, A., Busse, R. Hypertension (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Autoregulation of nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase-cyclic GMP signalling in mouse thoracic aorta. Hussain, M.B., Hobbs, A.J., MacAllister, R.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Provisional assignment of the gene for uridine monophosphatase-2 (Umph-2) to mouse chromosome 11. Wilson, D.E., Woodard, D., Sandler, A., Erickson, J., Gurney, A. Biochem. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Transfer of mink genes into mouse cells by means of isolated lipid-encapsulated nuclei. Sukoyan, M.A., Belyaev, N.D., Budker, V.G., Gradov, A.A., Pack, S.D., Serov, O.L. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Nitric oxide and cGMP regulate gene expression in neuronal and glial cells by activating type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Gudi, T., Hong, G.K., Vaandrager, A.B., Lohmann, S.M., Pilz, R.B. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Metabolic pathway of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-talose in mice: trapping in tissue after phosphorylation by galactokinase. Haradahira, T., Maeda, M., Kato, A., Kanazawa, Y., Yamada, M., Torii, Y., Ichiya, Y., Masuda, K. Nucl. Med. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of cyclic GMP produced by natriuretic peptides on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Nashida, T., Matsumoto, H., Imai, A., Kameda, A., Shimomura, H. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities