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Gene Review

AES  -  amino-terminal enhancer of split

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AES-1, AES-2, Amino enhancer of split, Amino-terminal enhancer of split, ESP1, ...
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Disease relevance of AES

  • In this study we investigated recognition by ovarian tumor associated lymphocyte (OVTAL), and breast tumor associated lymphocytes (BRTAL), of peptides corresponding to the sequence 125-135 of the Aminoenhancer of split (AES) protein [1].
  • In the group injected twice with AES reagents, toxicity was not significantly increased after the second treatment [2].
  • Data collected from 13 patients establish that whole-body AES immunoscintigraphy revealed metastases < 360 mg and RIGS detected micrometastases (5-15 mg) [3].
  • At 92.5 MBq, weight loss was significantly lower after AES than F6 treatment (P = 0.004) [2].
  • A total of 259 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates of Enterobacteriaceae members, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected and tested by the VITEK 2 system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the results were analyzed by the AES [4].

Psychiatry related information on AES

  • Agitation (73), aggression (70), rash (20), hallucinations (13) and abnormal dreams (31 were unlabelled AES while abnormal liver function tests (12), syncope (8), abnormal behaviour (4) and visual disturbance (3) were labelled AES possibly due to mirtazapine use [5].

High impact information on AES

  • AES specifically inhibited AR-mediated transcription in a well-defined cell-free transcription system and interacted specifically with the basal transcription factor (TFIIE) in HeLa nuclear extract [6].
  • A yeast two-hybrid assay has identified an androgen-dependent interaction of androgen receptor (AR) with amino-terminal enhancer of split (AES), a member of the highly conserved Groucho/TLE family of corepressors [6].
  • Parenteral exposures increased the risk of HCV but were not statistically significant; 67% of seroconverters were younger than 20 years of age, and the highest incidence rate (14.1/1,000 PY) was in children younger than 10 who were living in AES households with an anti-HCV-positive parent [7].
  • Conversely, AES alone decreases the eye size and abrogates the phenotypic consequences of SIX3/6 over-expression [8].
  • Although the Drosophila Groucho protein and its mammalian homologs, transducin-like enhancer of split proteins, are known to act as non-DNA binding corepressors, the role of the AES protein remains unclarified [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of AES

  • The Advanced Expert System (AES) was used in conjunction with the VITEK 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility test system to ascertain the beta-lactam phenotypes of 196 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae and the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa [10].
  • The susceptibility testing accuracy of the VITEK2 system and the ability of the Advance Expert System (AES) to provide interpretive readings were evaluated against 86 extended spectrum (ESBL) and 6 inhibitor-resistant-TEM (IRT) beta-lactamases producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates [11].
  • It is also shown that, even though AFEST is very resistant to temperature, its resistance towards the denaturing action of TFE is similar to that of mesophilic proteins, including an esterase from Escherichia coli, AES [12].
  • Clinically important mechanisms were revealed by the VITEK 2 AES with >95% agreement with reference data including methicillin resistance in staphylococci (98%), high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci (100%), VanA and VanB phenotypes in enterococci (100%), and ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae (93.8%) [13].

Biological context of AES


Anatomical context of AES

  • Patients with recurrent or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) were referred for pretargeted immunoscintigraphy (Affinity Enhancement System; AES) and radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) [3].
  • The percentages of leukocyte count changes were significantly lower after AES than F6 at 37 and 92.5 MBq (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiplanar AES has enabled detailed longitudinal measurement of the components of the anal canal and has revealed important gender differences [17].
  • A series of surface analytical techniques (XPS, AES, and surface contact angles) and in vitro analysis of cell attachment and spreading using gingival fibroblasts were performed [18].
  • Contribution to Zn-speciation in human breast milk: fractionation of organic compounds by HPLC and subsequent Zn-determination by DCP-AES [19].

Associations of AES with chemical compounds

  • Except for diethyllead, similar sensitivities were obtained by MIP-AES [20].
  • A method is described for the determination of methylmercury and butyltin compounds in marine sediment and tissue using microwave-assisted acid extraction or digestion and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis using gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection (GC-MIP-AES) [21].
  • We evaluated the Advanced Expert System (AES), which interprets MICs generated by the VITEK 2 [22].
  • The use of AES with different beta-emitters such as rhenium-188, samarium-153, or lutetium-177 or alpha-emitters such as actinium-225 or bismuth-213 is now considered [23].
  • The dissolution of silicon (Si) and phosphate (P) was detected with direct current plasma atom emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) monthly up to 6 months [24].

Enzymatic interactions of AES

  • The two full-length cDNAs encoding ESG1 (Enhancer of split groucho) and related AES (Amino Enhancer of split) proteins of 767 and 197 amino acids, respectively, were cloned and sequenced from the African frog Xenopus laevis [25].

Other interactions of AES

  • The Q domain in AES shares high homology with those in the transcription co-repressor transducin-like enhancer of split (TLE) proteins [14].
  • Full-length AR, as well as the N-terminal fragment of AR, showed direct interactions with AES in in vitro protein-protein interaction assays [6].
  • The films were annealed over a temperature range of 823-1373K and investigated with XAFS, XPS, AES and AFM [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AES

  • Control groups were treated with nonspecific 131I-labeled F(ab')2, nonspecific AES reagents, nonradiolabeled F6, F6-734 bispecific antibody, and nonradiolabeled bivalent hapten or received no injection [2].
  • Mice bearing TT tumor xenografts were treated with 37, 74, or 92.5 MBq of AES reagents, two injections of 74 MBq of AES reagents 45 days apart, or 37 or 92.5 MBq of 131I-F6 [2].
  • CONCLUSION: Radioimmunotherapy with AES is predicted to be as efficient and with lower hematological toxicity than direct targeting [27].
  • In addition, changes in features before and after adsorption were observed by utilizing FTIR, XRD, ToF-SIMS, and AES/SAM, examining the surface chemistry [28].
  • For sesquiterpenes, methods like GC, GC-EI-MS, GC-CI-MS, GC-MS-MS, GC-FT-IR, GC-UV, GC-AES, 13C-NMR, PY-GC-MS, HPLC, HPLC-TSP, SFE, SFC, SFC-UV are available, GC combined with MS is the most widespread [29].


  1. Ovarian and breast cytotoxic T lymphocytes can recognize peptides from the amino enhancer of split protein of the Notch complex. Babcock, B., Anderson, B.W., Papayannopoulos, I., Castilleja, A., Murray, J.L., Stifani, S., Kudelka, A.P., Wharton, J.T., Ioannides, C.G. Mol. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Toxicity and efficacy of radioimmunotherapy in carcinoembryonic antigen-producing medullary thyroid cancer xenograft: comparison of iodine 131-labeled F(ab')2 and pretargeted bivalent hapten and evaluation of repeated injections. Kraeber-Bodéré, F., Faivre-Chauvet, A., Saï-Maurel, C., Campion, L., Fiche, M., Gautherot, E., Le Boterff, J., Barbet, J., Chatal, J.F., Thédrez, P. Clin. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Successful surgical removal of occult metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma recurrences with the help of immunoscintigraphy and radioimmunoguided surgery. de Labriolle-Vaylet, C., Cattan, P., Sarfati, E., Wioland, M., Billotey, C., Brochériou, C., Rouvier, E., de Roquancourt, A., Rostène, W., Askienazy, S., Barbet, J., Milhaud, G., Gruaz-Guyon, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Potential impact of the VITEK 2 system and the Advanced Expert System on the clinical laboratory of a university-based hospital. Sanders, C.C., Peyret, M., Moland, E.S., Cavalieri, S.J., Shubert, C., Thomson, K.S., Boeufgras, J.M., Sanders, W.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The pharmacovigilance of mirtazapine: results of a prescription event monitoring study on 13554 patients in England. Biswas, P.N., Wilton, L.V., Shakir, S.A. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibition of androgen receptor-mediated transcription by amino-terminal enhancer of split. Yu, X., Li, P., Roeder, R.G., Wang, Z. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C in Egypt. Mohamed, M.K., Abdel-Hamid, M., Mikhail, N.N., Abdel-Aziz, F., Medhat, A., Magder, L.S., Fix, A.D., Strickland, G.T. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Six3 and Six6 activity is modulated by members of the groucho family. López-Ríos, J., Tessmar, K., Loosli, F., Wittbrodt, J., Bovolenta, P. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated transcription by association with the amino-terminal enhancer of split, a Groucho-related protein lacking WD40 repeats. Tetsuka, T., Uranishi, H., Imai, H., Ono, T., Sonta, S., Takahashi, N., Asamitsu, K., Okamoto, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Ability of the VITEK 2 advanced expert system To identify beta-lactam phenotypes in isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sanders, C.C., Peyret, M., Moland, E.S., Shubert, C., Thomson, K.S., Boeufgras, J.M., Sanders, W.E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Validation of the VITEK2 and the Advance Expert System with a collection of Enterobacteriaceae harboring extended spectrum or inhibitor resistant beta-lactamases. Cantón, R., Pérez-Vázquez, M., Oliver, A., Coque, T.M., Loza, E., Ponz, F., Baquero, F. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of trifluoroethanol on the conformational stability of a hyperthermophilic esterase: a CD study. Del Vecchio, P., Graziano, G., Granata, V., Barone, G., Mandrich, L., Rossi, M., Manco, G. Biophys. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Susceptibility testing and resistance phenotypes detection in bacterial pathogens using the VITEK 2 System. Stefaniuk, E., Mrówka, A., Hryniewicz, W. Pol. J. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The transcription co-repressor TLE1 interacted with the intracellular region of gpl30 through its Q domain. Liu, F., Liu, Y., Li, D., Zhu, Y., Ouyang, W., Xie, X., Jin, B. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning and expression of mouse and human cDNA encoding AES and ESG proteins with strong similarity to Drosophila enhancer of split groucho protein. Miyasaka, H., Choudhury, B.K., Hou, E.W., Li, S.S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Genomic organization and chromosome localization to band 19p13.3 of the human AES gene: gene product exhibits strong similarity to the N-terminal domain of Drosophila enhancer of Split Groucho protein. Hou, E.W., Li, S.S. DNA Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Multiplanar anal endosonography--normal anal canal anatomy. Williams, A.B., Bartram, C.I., Halligan, S., Marshall, M.M., Nicholls, R.J., Kmiot, W.A. Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Reuse of healing abutments: an in vitro model of plasma cleaning and common sterilization techniques. Vezeau, P.J., Keller, J.C., Wightman, J.P. Implant dentistry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Contribution to Zn-speciation in human breast milk: fractionation of organic compounds by HPLC and subsequent Zn-determination by DCP-AES. Michalke, B., Münch, D.C., Schramel, P. Journal of trace elements and electrolytes in health and disease. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of three coupled gas chromatographic detectors (MS, MIP-AES, ICP-TOFMS) for organolead speciation analysis. Baena, J.R., Gallego, M., Valcárcel, M., Leenaers, J., Adams, F.C. Anal. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Determination of methylmercury and butyltin compounds in marine biota and sediments using microwave-assisted acid extraction, solid-phase microextraction, and gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection. Tutschku, S., Schantz, M.M., Wise, S.A. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Multicentre evaluation of the VITEK 2 Advanced Expert System for interpretive reading of antimicrobial resistance tests. Livermore, D.M., Struelens, M., Amorim, J., Baquero, F., Bille, J., Canton, R., Henning, S., Gatermann, S., Marchese, A., Mittermayer, H., Nonhoff, C., Oakton, K.J., Praplan, F., Ramos, H., Schito, G.C., Van Eldere, J., Verhaegen, J., Verhoef, J., Visser, M.R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Synthesis of new bivalent peptides for applications in the Affinity Enhancement System. Morandeau, L., Benoist, E., Loussouarn, A., Ouadi, A., Lesaec, P., Mougin, M., Faivre-Chauvet, A., Le Boterff, J., Chatal, J.F., Barbet, J., Gestin, J.F. Bioconjug. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Clinical follow-up method for frontal sinus obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4. Peltola, M.J., Suonpää, J.T., Määttänen, H.S., Varpula, M.J., Aitasalo, K.M., Yli-Urpo, A., Laippala, P.J. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Cloning and developmental expression of Xenopus cDNAs encoding the Enhancer of split groucho and related proteins. Choudhury, B.K., Kim, J., Kung, H.F., Li, S.S. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. XAFS studies of the formation of cobalt silicide on (square root of 3 x square root of 3) SiC(0001). Platow, W., Wood, D.E., Burnette, J.E., Nemanich, R.J., Sayers, D.E. Journal of synchrotron radiation. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Delivery of therapeutic doses of radioiodine using bispecific antibody-targeted bivalent haptens. Gautherot, E., Le Doussal, J.M., Bouhou, J., Manetti, C., Martin, M., Rouvier, E., Barbet, J. J. Nucl. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Adsorption characteristics of SO2 on activated carbon prepared from coconut shell with potassium hydroxide activation. Lee, Y.W., Park, J.W., Choung, J.H., Choi, D.K. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Review of the analytical techniques for sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene lactones. Merfort, I. Journal of chromatography. A. (2002) [Pubmed]
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