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MeSH Review

Anal Canal

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Disease relevance of Anal Canal


Psychiatry related information on Anal Canal


High impact information on Anal Canal

  • We randomly assigned 50 adults with symptomatic chronic posterior anal fissures to receive treatment with either a total of 20 U of botulinum toxin injected into the internal anal sphincter on each side of the anterior midline or 0.2 percent nitroglycerin ointment applied twice daily for six weeks [8].
  • The anal gland secretions of dolichoderine ants in the genus Azteca are fortified with cyclopentyl ketones [9].
  • Likewise, CO-mediated nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation of the internal anal sphincter requires CK2 activity [10].
  • Between 1983 and 1987, 79 assessable patients with any primary tumor stage of anal canal carcinoma were treated by external-beam irradiation combined with mitomycin given by bolus iv injection and 5-FU given by continuous infusion [11].
  • Nitric oxide not carbon monoxide mediates nonadrenergic noncholinergic relaxation in the murine internal anal sphincter [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Anal Canal


Biological context of Anal Canal


Anatomical context of Anal Canal

  • METHODS: We determined the effect of angiotensin I, II, III, and IV and angiotensin-(1-7) on the basal tone of the rat internal anal sphincter smooth muscle before and after selective receptor antagonists and biosynthesis inhibitors [23].
  • 1. Intracellular recordings were made from external urethral sphincter (EUS) and external anal sphincter (EAS) motoneurones in the cat spinal cord under pentobarbitone anaesthesia [24].
  • Four patients with FAP (high transection, two; low transection, two) had microadenoma in the distal 'doughnut'. Despite attempts to place a stapled pouch-anal anastomosis below the anal transition zone, it was not possible to remove columnar mucosa completely from the remaining anal canal in most patients (16 of 18) [25].
  • Unlike its effects on the rest of the GI tract, the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) on the internal anal sphincter (IAS) are not known [26].
  • Typically, near complete regression of tumor is noted on completion of the external RT, reproducing the dramatic responses that have been observed in SCC of the anal canal, esophagus and head and neck, with this CT-RT regimen [27].

Associations of Anal Canal with chemical compounds


Gene context of Anal Canal


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anal Canal

  • Diathermy DCH was performed without pedicle ligature or anal-canal dressing, and a diclofenac suppository was administered at the end of the procedure [37].
  • Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel [38].
  • High-dose radiation therapy and neoadjuvant plus concomitant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell anal canal cancer: final results of a phase II study [39].
  • Transmural electrical stimulation of the sheep isolated internal anal sphincter causes a transient relaxation of myogenic tone that appears to involve nitric oxide from non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nerves and, to a lesser degree, noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves [40].
  • In conclusion, although radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy is considered the current 'gold-standard' treatment for anal canal cancer, in our daily experience, only 55% of our T3/T4 patients have undergone this treatment [41].


  1. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen as a marker for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Petrelli, N.J., Shaw, N., Bhargava, A., Daufeldt, J., Herrera, L., Stulc, J.P., Sischy, B., Mittelman, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. 0.4% nitroglycerin ointment : in the treatment of chronic anal fissure pain. Fenton, C., Wellington, K., Easthope, S.E. Drugs (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of experimental colitis in rabbits. Oyen, W.J., Boerman, O.C., Dams, E.T., Storm, G., van Bloois, L., Koenders, E.B., van Haelst, U.J., van der Meer, J.W., Corstens, F.H. J. Nucl. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Sphincter-sparing treatment for distal rectal adenocarcinoma. Steele, G.D., Herndon, J.E., Bleday, R., Russell, A., Benson, A., Hussain, M., Burgess, A., Tepper, J.E., Mayer, R.J. Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Relation between flexor spasms, uninhibited detrusor contractions and anal sphincter activity. Pedersen, E., Petersen, T., Schrøder, H.D. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Motor activity of refashioned colorectoanus in patients with total colonic aganglionosis. Endo, M., Masuyama, H., Watanabe, K., Ikawa, H., Yokoyama, J., Kitajima, M. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Women's health 18 years after rupture of the anal sphincter during childbirth: II. Urinary incontinence, sexual function, and physical and mental health. Otero, M., Boulvain, M., Bianchi-Demicheli, F., Floris, L.A., Sangalli, M.R., Weil, A., Irion, O., Faltin, D.L. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. A comparison of injections of botulinum toxin and topical nitroglycerin ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Brisinda, G., Maria, G., Bentivoglio, A.R., Cassetta, E., Gui, D., Albanese, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Cyclopentyl ketones: identification and function in Azteca ants. Wheeler, J.W., Evans, S.L., Blum, M.S., Torgerson, R.L. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Carbon monoxide neurotransmission activated by CK2 phosphorylation of heme oxygenase-2. Boehning, D., Moon, C., Sharma, S., Hurt, K.J., Hester, L.D., Ronnett, G.V., Shugar, D., Snyder, S.H. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Definitive irradiation and chemotherapy for radiosensitization in management of anal carcinoma: interim report on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study no. 8314. Sischy, B., Doggett, R.L., Krall, J.M., Taylor, D.G., Sause, W.T., Lipsett, J.A., Seydel, H.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Nitric oxide not carbon monoxide mediates nonadrenergic noncholinergic relaxation in the murine internal anal sphincter. Rattan, S., Regan, R.F., Patel, C.A., De Godoy, M.A. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Prognostic role of p53 protein expression in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Wong, C.S., Tsao, M.S., Sharma, V., Chapman, W.B., Pintilie, M., Cummings, B.J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Lack of effficacy of botulinum toxin in chronic anal fissure. Siproudhis, L., Sébille, V., Pigot, F., Hémery, P., Juguet, F., Bellissant, E. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Influence of gastrointestinal neuropeptides on the anal canal. Lorentzen, M., Thagaard, C., Christiansen, J. Dis. Colon Rectum (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Lidocaine anal block limits autonomic dysreflexia during anorectal procedures in spinal cord injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Cosman, B.C., Vu, T.T. Dis. Colon Rectum (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Diagnosing multiple system atrophy with greater accuracy: combined analysis of the clonidine-growth hormone test and external anal sphincter electromyography. Lee, E.A., Kim, B.J., Lee, W.Y. Mov. Disord. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of galanin on the opossum internal anal sphincter: structure-activity relationship. Chakder, S., Rattan, S. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Peptide histidine isoleucine and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide cause relaxation of opossum internal anal sphincter via two distinct receptors. Nurko, S., Dunn, B.M., Rattan, S. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. The perspective of a gynecologist on treatment-related research for fecal incontinence in women. Weber, A.M. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Factors associated with pelvic floor dysfunction with emphasis on urinary and fecal incontinence and genital prolapse: an epidemiological study. Uustal Fornell, E., Wingren, G., Kjølhede, P. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Intraoperative monitoring of myogenic motor-evoked potentials from the external anal sphincter muscle to transcranial electrical stimulation. Inoue, S., Kawaguchi, M., Takashi, S., Kakimoto, M., Sakamoto, T., Kitaguchi, K., Furuya, H., Morimoto, T., Sakaki, T. Spine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence for the role of angiotensin II biosynthesis in the rat internal anal sphincter tone. De Godoy, M.A., Dunn, S., Rattan, S. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Membrane properties of external urethral and external anal sphincter motoneurones in the cat. Sasaki, M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Histological assessment of the distal 'doughnut' in patients undergoing stapled restorative proctocolectomy with high or low anal transection. Deen, K.I., Hubscher, S., Bain, I., Patel, R., Keighley, M.R. The British journal of surgery. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Excitatory and inhibitory actions of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) in the internal anal sphincter smooth muscle: sites of actions. Rattan, S., Chakder, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Concurrent radiation, mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil in poor prognosis carcinoma of cervix: preliminary results of a phase I-II study. Thomas, G., Dembo, A., Beale, F., Bean, H., Bush, R., Herman, J., Pringle, J., Rawlings, G., Sturgeon, J., Fine, S. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Influence of loperamide on the internal anal sphincter in the opossum. Rattan, S., Culver, P.J. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Nitric oxide pathway in rectoanal inhibitory reflex of opossum internal anal sphincter. Rattan, S., Sarkar, A., Chakder, S. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Diltiazem and internal anal sphincter. Jonard, P., Essamri, B. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Involvement of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in internal anal sphincter relaxation. Tøttrup, A., Glavind, E.B., Svane, D. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Distribution and coexistence of peptides in nerve fibers of the external muscle of the human gastrointestinal tract. Wattchow, D.A., Furness, J.B., Costa, M. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Intramural distribution of regulatory peptides in the sigmoid-recto-anal region of the human gut. Ferri, G.L., Adrian, T.E., Allen, J.M., Soimero, L., Cancellieri, A., Yeats, J.C., Blank, M., Polak, J.M., Bloom, S.R. Gut (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Heme oxygenase-2 distribution in anorectum: colocalization with neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Battish, R., Cao, G.Y., Lynn, R.B., Chakder, S., Rattan, S. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. CGRP(2) receptor in the internal anal sphincter of the rat: implications for CGRP receptor classification. Wisskirchen, F.M., Marshall, I. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Distinct roles of nitric oxide synthases and interstitial cells of Cajal in rectoanal relaxation. Terauchi, A., Kobayashi, D., Mashimo, H. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of effect of metronidazole on pain after day-case haemorrhoidectomy. Carapeti, E.A., Kamm, M.A., McDonald, P.J., Phillips, R.K. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence. Read, M.G., Read, N.W. Gut (1982) [Pubmed]
  39. High-dose radiation therapy and neoadjuvant plus concomitant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell anal canal cancer: final results of a phase II study. Peiffert, D., Giovannini, M., Ducreux, M., Michel, P., François, E., Lemanski, C., Mirabel, X., Cvitkovic, F., Luporsi, E., Conroy, T., Gérard, J.P. Ann. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. Pharmacological characterization of neurogenic responses of the sheep isolated internal anal sphincter. Mundey, M.K., Jonas, M., Worthley, T., Scholefield, J.H., Wilson, V.G. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Anal canal cancer treatment: practical limitations of routine prescription of concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Chauveinc, L., Buthaud, X., Falcou, M.C., Mosseri, V., De la Rochefordière, A., Pierga, J.Y., Girodet, J., Salmon, R.J. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
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