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Gene Review

AFM  -  afamin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ALB2, ALBA, ALF, Afamin, Alpha-Alb, ...
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Disease relevance of AFM

  • Macrophagic myofasciitis: an emerging entity. Groupe d'Etudes et Recherche sur les Maladies Musculaires Acquises et Dysimmunitaires (GERMMAD) de l'Association Française contre les Myopathies (AFM) [1].
  • Here, we present AFM topographs at 12 A resolution of native membranes containing all constituents of the PSU from Rhodospirillum photometricum [2].
  • Sixteen patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with four cycles of doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and methotrexate (AFM induction) [3].
  • In the subgroup of responders to AFM induction, multivariate analysis showed that those with visceral metastases did less well (P =.0006), as did patients who had received prior adjuvant therapy (P =.0023) [4].
  • Furthermore, the interpretation of QCM-D signals (i.e., frequency shift and dissipation shift), with the aid of AFM image analysis of the phage particles bound on the surface of the two metal oxides, elucidated whether the nature of phage (or the displayed peptide) binding to the metal oxides is largely specific or nonspecific [5].

Psychiatry related information on AFM

  • Significant predictors of current risk behavior included several barriers from the HBM and negative attitude about risk-reducing behaviors from the AFM [6].
  • METHODS: To determine the contribution of degraded visual functioning to slowing, we bypassed this modality and measured reaction time in an AFM paradigm to auditory (Experiment 1) and kinesthetic (Experiment 2) stimuli [7].

High impact information on AFM

  • The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mild hypothermia (35 degrees C) prevents the encephalopathy and brain edema resulting from hepatic devascularization, selectively normalizes lactate and alanine synthesis from glucose, and prevents the impairment of oxidative metabolism associated with this model of ALF, but has no significant effect on brain glutamine [9].
  • Chair-boat transitions in single polysaccharide molecules observed with force-ramp AFM [10].
  • The expansion of the DNA database arising as a result of the human genome sequencing project enabled us to identify ALF in, or close to, several well characterized genes including those for annexin VI, interleukin-4 and protein kinase C-beta [11].
  • Of 711 AFM genetic markers 404 were selected to construct a robust framework map that spans all the autosomes and the X chromosome [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of AFM


Biological context of AFM

  • Both rAFM and AFM purified from human serum react with a polyclonal antibody that was raised against a synthetic peptide derived from the deduced amino acid sequence of AFM [17].
  • Using techniques of fluorescence in situ hybridization to chromatin fibres, chromosome walking and DNA sequencing of genomic clones, we now report on the chromosomal location of the ALF gene and the organization of the entire gene family [18].
  • Additionally, we demonstrate that afamin has multiple binding sites for both alpha- and gamma-tocopherol [19].
  • Human plasma afamin, the fourth member of the albumin gene family, is shown to be a specific binding protein for vitamin E. A radio ligand-binding assay followed by Scatchard and Hill analysis are used to show that afamin has a binding affinity for both alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, two of the most important forms of vitamin E, in vitro [19].
  • The short single-stranded DNAs imaged here (25 and 50 bases long) appeared globular in the AFM, perhaps because they are all capable of intramolecular base pairing and because the DNAs were in a Mg(ll) buffer, which facilitates intramolecular cross-bridging [20].

Anatomical context of AFM


Associations of AFM with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of AFM

  • Furthermore, binding of [(11)C]AFM in SERT-rich regions was blocked by the cold compound AFM and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram but not by the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor nisoxetine or the selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor GBR 12935 [26].
  • Modeling AFM-induced PEVK extension and the reversible unfolding of Ig/FNIII domains in single and multiple titin molecules [27].

Other interactions of AFM

  • The DBP-gene is a member of a multigene cluster that includes albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and alpha-albumin/afamin [28].
  • Here, we confirm the mapping of OPA1 to chromosome 3q28-qter by showing close linkage of the disease locus to three recently reported microsatellite DNA markers in the interval defined by loci D3S1314 and D3S1265 in four French families (Zmax = 5.13 at theta = 0 for probe AFM 308yf1 at locus D3S1601) [29].
  • The SPARC-binding sites on collagen I and procollagen I were identified by directly visualizing their complexes using tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) [30].
  • We exclude adjacent chemokine genes as the cause of the association, and identify a disease-associated haplotype that spans a 250-kb region from AFM to IL8 [31].
  • Isolation of an scFv targeting BRG1 using phage display with characterization by AFM [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AFM

  • The vitamin E association of afamin in follicular fluid was directly demonstrated by gel filtration chromatography and immunoprecipitation which complements the in vitro findings for purified native and recombinant afamin [22].
  • CONCLUSION: The chance for long-term remission with induction therapy with AFM and high-dose chemotherapy is increased for hormone receptor positive-patients with nonvisceral metastases who have not received prior adjuvant chemotherapy and have long disease-free intervals [4].
  • The electrochemical cathodic electrografting reaction, previously demonstrated on bulk silicon surfaces, can be patterned on the nanoscale utilizing conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) [33].
  • The formation of the aryl-metal or aryl-semiconductor bond attachments was confirmed by corroborating evidence from ellipsometry, reflectance FTIR, XPS, cyclic voltammetry, and AFM analyses of the surface-grafted monolayers [34].
  • Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and AFM revealed that the NAB layer was 2-3 molecules thick and was bonded to the two conducting contacts by C-C and N-Ti covalent bonds [35].


  1. Macrophagic myofasciitis: an emerging entity. Groupe d'Etudes et Recherche sur les Maladies Musculaires Acquises et Dysimmunitaires (GERMMAD) de l'Association Française contre les Myopathies (AFM). Gherardi, R.K., Coquet, M., Chérin, P., Authier, F.J., Laforêt, P., Bélec, L., Figarella-Branger, D., Mussini, J.M., Pellissier, J.F., Fardeau, M. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Variable LH2 stoichiometry and core clustering in native membranes of Rhodospirillum photometricum. Scheuring, S., Rigaud, J.L., Sturgis, J.N. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells by chemotherapy and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for hematologic support after high-dose intensification for breast cancer. Elias, A.D., Ayash, L., Anderson, K.C., Hunt, M., Wheeler, C., Schwartz, G., Tepler, I., Mazanet, R., Lynch, C., Pap, S. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Prognostic and predictive factors for patients with metastatic breast cancer undergoing aggressive induction therapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell support. Rizzieri, D.A., Vredenburgh, J.J., Jones, R., Ross, M., Shpall, E.J., Hussein, A., Broadwater, G., Berry, D., Petros, W.P., Gilbert, C., Affronti, M.L., Coniglio, D., Rubin, P., Elkordy, M., Long, G.D., Chao, N.J., Peters, W.P. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. QCM-D analysis of binding mechanism of phage particles displaying a constrained heptapeptide with specific affinity to SiO2 and TiO2. Chen, H., Su, X., Neoh, K.G., Choe, W.S. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. AIDS-related risk behavior and behavior change in a sexually active, heterosexual sample: a test of three models of prevention. Zimmerman, R.S., Olson, K. AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence that the slowing caused by acute hypoxia is modality dependent. Beach, C., Fowler, B. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor. Smith, D.E., Sjogren, W.L., Tyler, G.L., Balmino, G., Lemoine, F.G., Konopliv, A.S. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of hypothermia on brain glucose metabolism in acute liver failure: a H/C-nuclear magnetic resonance study. Chatauret, N., Zwingmann, C., Rose, C., Leibfritz, D., Butterworth, R.F. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Chair-boat transitions in single polysaccharide molecules observed with force-ramp AFM. Marszalek, P.E., Li, H., Oberhauser, A.F., Fernandez, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A conserved nuclear element with a role in mammalian gene regulation. Donnelly, S.R., Hawkins, T.E., Moss, S.E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. A radiation hybrid map of the human genome. Gyapay, G., Schmitt, K., Fizames, C., Jones, H., Vega-Czarny, N., Spillett, D., Muselet, D., Prud'homme, J.F., Dib, C., Auffray, C., Morissette, J., Weissenbach, J., Goodfellow, P.N. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of methods of measuring HER-2 in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy. Harris, L.N., Liotcheva, V., Broadwater, G., Ramirez, M.J., Maimonis, P., Anderson, S., Everett, T., Harpole, D., Moore, M.B., Berry, D.A., Rizzeri, D., Vredenburgh, J.J., Bentley, R.C. J. Clin. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutant AFM 2 of Alcaligenes faecalis for phenol biodegradation using He-Ne laser irradiation. Jiang, Y., Wen, J., Caiyin, Q., Lin, L., Hu, Z. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Ambient STM and in situ AFM study of nitrite reductase proteins adsorbed on gold and graphite: influence of the substrate on protein interactions. Contera, S.A., Iwasaki, H., Suzuki, S. Ultramicroscopy. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Relationship of amniotic fluid markers of intra-amniotic infection with histopathology in cases of preterm labor with intact membranes. Odibo, A.O., Rodis, J.F., Sanders, M.M., Borgida, A.F., Wilson, M., Egan, J.F., Campbell, W.A. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Afamin is a new member of the albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein gene family. Lichenstein, H.S., Lyons, D.E., Wurfel, M.M., Johnson, D.A., McGinley, M.D., Leidli, J.C., Trollinger, D.B., Mayer, J.P., Wright, S.D., Zukowski, M.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Tandem arrangement of the human serum albumin multigene family in the sub-centromeric region of 4q: evolution and chromosomal direction of transcription. Nishio, H., Heiskanen, M., Palotie, A., Bélanger, L., Dugaiczyk, A. J. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterization of the vitamin E-binding properties of human plasma afamin. Voegele, A.F., Jerković, L., Wellenzohn, B., Eller, P., Kronenberg, F., Liedl, K.R., Dieplinger, H. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Atomic force microscopy of long and short double-stranded, single-stranded and triple-stranded nucleic acids. Hansma, H.G., Revenko, I., Kim, K., Laney, D.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Glial cells identified by anti-alpha-albumin (anti-GFA) in human pineal gland. Lowenthal, A., Flament-Durand, J., Karcher, D., Noppe, M., Brion, J.P. J. Neurochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Afamin is a novel human vitamin E-binding glycoprotein characterization and in vitro expression. Jerkovic, L., Voegele, A.F., Chwatal, S., Kronenberg, F., Radcliffe, C.M., Wormald, M.R., Lobentanz, E.M., Ezeh, B., Eller, P., Dejori, N., Dieplinger, B., Lottspeich, F., Sattler, W., Uhr, M., Mechtler, K., Dwek, R.A., Rudd, P.M., Baier, G., Dieplinger, H. J. Proteome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. 4-Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide purging of breast cancer from the mononuclear cell fraction of bone marrow in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and autologous marrow support: a phase I trial. Shpall, E.J., Jones, R.B., Bast, R.C., Rosner, G.L., Vandermark, R., Ross, M., Affronti, M.L., Johnston, C., Eggleston, S., Tepperburg, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Impact of consolidation radiotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow rescue. Carter, D.L., Marks, L.B., Bean, J.M., Broadwater, G., Hussein, A., Vredenburgh, J.J., Peters, W.P., Prosnitz, L.R. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Modification of silicon AFM cantilever tips with an oligo(ethylene glycol) derivative for resisting proteins and maintaining a small tip size for high-resolution imaging. Yam, C.M., Xiao, Z., Gu, J., Boutet, S., Cai, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. A new positron emission tomography imaging agent for the serotonin transporter: synthesis, pharmacological characterization, and kinetic analysis of [11C]2-[2-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenylthio]-5-fluoromethylphenylamine ([11C]AFM). Huang, Y., Hwang, D.R., Bae, S.A., Sudo, Y., Guo, N., Zhu, Z., Narendran, R., Laruelle, M. Nucl. Med. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Modeling AFM-induced PEVK extension and the reversible unfolding of Ig/FNIII domains in single and multiple titin molecules. Zhang, B., Evans, J.S. Biophys. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Biological and clinical aspects of the vitamin D binding protein (Gc-globulin) and its polymorphism. Speeckaert, M., Huang, G., Delanghe, J.R., Taes, Y.E. Clin. Chim. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. No evidence of genetic heterogeneity in dominant optic atrophy. Bonneau, D., Souied, E., Gerber, S., Rozet, J.M., D'Haens, E., Journel, H., Plessis, G., Weissenbach, J., Munnich, A., Kaplan, J. J. Med. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Identifying the SPARC binding sites on collagen I and procollagen I by atomic force microscopy. Wang, H., Fertala, A., Ratner, B.D., Sage, E.H., Jiang, S. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Haplotype mapping of the bronchiolitis susceptibility locus near IL8. Hull, J., Rowlands, K., Lockhart, E., Sharland, M., Moore, C., Hanchard, N., Kwiatkowski, D.P. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Isolation of an scFv targeting BRG1 using phage display with characterization by AFM. Marcus, W.D., Wang, H., Lohr, D., Sierks, M.R., Lindsay, S.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Nanopatterning of alkynes on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces by scanning probe-induced cathodic electrografting. Hurley, P.T., Ribbe, A.E., Buriak, J.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Direct covalent grafting of conjugated molecules onto Si, GaAs, and Pd surfaces from aryldiazonium salts. Stewart, M.P., Maya, F., Kosynkin, D.V., Dirk, S.M., Stapleton, J.J., McGuiness, C.L., Allara, D.L., Tour, J.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular rectification and conductance switching in carbon-based molecular junctions by structural rearrangement accompanying electron injection. McCreery, R., Dieringer, J., Solak, A.O., Snyder, B., Nowak, A.M., McGovern, W.R., DuVall, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
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