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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Syncope


Psychiatry related information on Syncope


High impact information on Syncope


Chemical compound and disease context of Syncope

  • Cough syncope treated with a long-term vasoconstrictor [14].
  • Eight previously characterized patients with recurrent NMS (five females and three males; 34+/-2 yr) were recruited from the Vanderbilt Syncope Unit and eight age-matched controls underwent initial administration of clonidine (CLO) or yohimbine (YHO) [15].
  • Exacerbations of neurally mediated syncope associated with sertraline [16].
  • FINDINGS: We calculated risk scores from patients' admission haemoglobin, blood urea, pulse, and systolic blood pressure, as well as presentation with syncope or melaena, and evidence of hepatic disease or cardiac failure [17].
  • Induction of neurally mediated syncope with adenosine [18].

Biological context of Syncope


Anatomical context of Syncope


Gene context of Syncope

  • We identified a novel missense mutation, V65 M, in the KCNE2 gene of a 17-year-old female with syncope and LQTS [29].
  • This suggested that KCNE1 could be the morbid gene responsible for an autosomal recessive cardio-auditory disease, the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, characterized by ventricular repolarization abnormalities and recurrent syncopes leading eventually to sudden death associated with a bilateral congenital deafness [30].
  • Conversely, LQT2 patients are at higher risk to develop syncope under stressful conditions, because of the combined arrhythmogenic effect of catecholamines with the insufficient adaptation of their QT interval [31].
  • Genotype-negative LQTS patients with a single ANK2 variant displayed nonexertional syncope, U waves, sinus bradycardia, and extracardiac findings [32].
  • Among these patients, there is also a trend for LQT2 patients to have syncope or cardiac arrest under emotional or physical stress and for LQT3 patients to have cardiac events either at rest or during sleep [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Syncope


  1. Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency. Shannon, J.R., Flattem, N.L., Jordan, J., Jacob, G., Black, B.K., Biaggioni, I., Blakely, R.D., Robertson, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Locus heterogeneity of autosomal dominant long QT syndrome. Curran, M., Atkinson, D., Timothy, K., Vincent, G.M., Moss, A.J., Leppert, M., Keating, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Differentiation of convulsive syncope and epilepsy with head-up tilt testing. Grubb, B.P., Gerard, G., Roush, K., Temesy-Armos, P., Elliott, L., Hahn, H., Spann, C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Electrophysiological laboratory, electrophysiologist-implanted, nonthoracotomy-implantable cardioverter/defibrillators. Fitzpatrick, A.P., Lesh, M.D., Epstein, L.M., Lee, R.J., Siu, A., Merrick, S., Griffin, J.C., Scheinman, M.M. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of etilefrine in preventing syncopal recurrence in patients with vasovagal syncope: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The Vasovagal Syncope International Study. Raviele, A., Brignole, M., Sutton, R., Alboni, P., Giani, P., Menozzi, C., Moya, A. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Screening for ryanodine receptor type 2 mutations in families with effort-induced polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death: early diagnosis of asymptomatic carriers. Bauce, B., Rampazzo, A., Basso, C., Bagattin, A., Daliento, L., Tiso, N., Turrini, P., Thiene, G., Danieli, G.A., Nava, A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential diagnosis of episodic symptoms. Pedley, T.A. Epilepsia (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. The pharmacovigilance of mirtazapine: results of a prescription event monitoring study on 13554 patients in England. Biswas, P.N., Wilton, L.V., Shakir, S.A. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Provocation of bradycardia and hypotension by isoproterenol and upright posture in patients with unexplained syncope. Almquist, A., Goldenberg, I.F., Milstein, S., Chen, M.Y., Chen, X.C., Hansen, R., Gornick, C.C., Benditt, D.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Verapamil, syncope, and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Trohman, R.G., Feldman, T., Palomo, A.R., Kessler, K.M., Myerberg, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Transgingival nitrate syncope. O'Keefe, J.H., Kwong, E.M., Tancredi, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Thymoma-induced syncope. Ben-Chetrit, E., Ben-Yehuda, A., Ackerman, Z., Burstein, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Pacemaker therapy for prevention of syncope in patients with recurrent severe vasovagal syncope: Second Vasovagal Pacemaker Study (VPS II): a randomized trial. Connolly, S.J., Sheldon, R., Thorpe, K.E., Roberts, R.S., Ellenbogen, K.A., Wilkoff, B.L., Morillo, C., Gent, M. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Cough syncope treated with a long-term vasoconstrictor. Chadda, K.D., Peters, R., Bloomfield, B., Kops, R. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Yohimbine in neurally mediated syncope. Pathophysiological implications. Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Fernandez-Violante, R., Tank, J., Snell, M., Cunningham, G., Furlan, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Exacerbations of neurally mediated syncope associated with sertraline. Tandan, T., Giuffre, M., Sheldon, R. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. A risk score to predict need for treatment for upper-gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Blatchford, O., Murray, W.R., Blatchford, M. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Induction of neurally mediated syncope with adenosine. Mittal, S., Stein, K.M., Markowitz, S.M., Slotwiner, D.J., Rohatgi, S., Lerman, B.B. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. A recessive variant of the Romano-Ward long-QT syndrome? Priori, S.G., Schwartz, P.J., Napolitano, C., Bianchi, L., Dennis, A., De Fusco, M., Brown, A.M., Casari, G. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. De Subitaneis Mortibus. XXI. Adult onset syncope. with comments on the nature of congenital heart block and the morphogenesis of the human atrioventricular septal junction. James, T.N., Spencer, M.S., Kloepfer, J.C. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. A placebo-controlled trial of intravenous and oral disopyramide for prevention of neurally mediated syncope induced by head-up tilt. Morillo, C.A., Leitch, J.W., Yee, R., Klein, G.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Outcome of patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and unexplained syncope treated with an implantable defibrillator. Knight, B.P., Goyal, R., Pelosi, F., Flemming, M., Horwood, L., Morady, F., Strickberger, S.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Hemodynamic response during lower body negative pressure: role of volume status. Ligtenberg, G., Blankestijn, P.J., Koomans, H.A. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Adenosine-induced atrioventricular block in patients with unexplained syncope: the diagnostic value of ATP testing. Brignole, M., Gaggioli, G., Menozzi, C., Gianfranchi, L., Bartoletti, A., Bottoni, N., Lolli, G., Oddone, D., Del Rosso, A., Pellinghelli, G. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Neurally mediated cardiac syncope: autonomic modulation after normal saline infusion. Burklow, T.R., Moak, J.P., Bailey, J.J., Makhlouf, F.T. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Angiotensin II levels, hemodynamics, and sympathoadrenal function after low-dose captopril in heart failure. Cleland, J., Semple, P., Hodsman, P., Ball, S., Ford, I., Dargie, H. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Late-onset drop attacks in temporal lobe epilepsy: a reevaluation of the concept of temporal lobe syncope. Gambardella, A., Reutens, D.C., Andermann, F., Cendes, F., Gloor, P., Dubeau, F., Olivier, A. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Sympathetic innervation of the left ventricle is impaired in arrhythmogenic right ventricular disease. Lerch, H., Bartenstein, P., Wichter, T., Hindricks, G., Borggrefe, M., Breithardt, G., Schober, O. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification and functional characterization of a novel KCNE2 (MiRP1) mutation that alters HERG channel kinetics. Isbrandt, D., Friederich, P., Solth, A., Haverkamp, W., Ebneth, A., Borggrefe, M., Funke, H., Sauter, K., Breithardt, G., Pongs, O., Schulze-Bahr, E. J. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Exclusion of KCNE1 (IsK) as a candidate gene for Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. Tesson, F., Donger, C., Denjoy, I., Berthet, M., Bennaceur, M., Petit, C., Coumel, P., Schwarts, K., Guicheney, P. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular biology of the long QT syndrome: impact on management. Priori, S.G., Napolitano, C., Paganini, V., Cantù, F., Schwartz, P.J. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Targeted mutational analysis of ankyrin-B in 541 consecutive, unrelated patients referred for long QT syndrome genetic testing and 200 healthy subjects. Sherman, J., Tester, D.J., Ackerman, M.J. Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Long QT syndrome patients with mutations of the SCN5A and HERG genes have differential responses to Na+ channel blockade and to increases in heart rate. Implications for gene-specific therapy. Schwartz, P.J., Priori, S.G., Locati, E.H., Napolitano, C., Cantù, F., Towbin, J.A., Keating, M.T., Hammoude, H., Brown, A.M., Chen, L.S. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Diagnosing syncope. Part 1: Value of history, physical examination, and electrocardiography. Clinical Efficacy Assessment Project of the American College of Physicians. Linzer, M., Yang, E.H., Estes, N.A., Wang, P., Vorperian, V.R., Kapoor, W.N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Risk factors for syncope recurrence after a positive tilt-table test in patients with syncope. Sheldon, R., Rose, S., Flanagan, P., Koshman, M.L., Killam, S. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Effects of permanent pacemaker and oral theophylline in sick sinus syndrome the THEOPACE study: a randomized controlled trial. Alboni, P., Menozzi, C., Brignole, M., Paparella, N., Gaggioli, G., Lolli, G., Cappato, R. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. The significance of electrocardiographic late potentials: predictors of ventricular tachycardia. Berbari, E.J., Lazzara, R. Annu. Rev. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Limitations of head-up tilt test for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in patients with vasovagal syncope: results of a controlled study of etilefrine versus placebo. Moya, A., Permanyer-Miralda, G., Sagrista-Sauleda, J., Carne, X., Rius, T., Mont, L., Soler-Soler, J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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