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Gene Review

TSC22D3  -  TSC22 domain family, member 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DIP, DSIP-immunoreactive peptide, DSIPI, Delta sleep-inducing peptide immunoreactor, GILZ, ...
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Disease relevance of TSC22D3


High impact information on TSC22D3


Biological context of TSC22D3

  • GILZ, a new target for the transcription factor FoxO3, protects T lymphocytes from interleukin-2 withdrawal-induced apoptosis [3].
  • GILZ overexpression protects CTLL-2 cells from IL-2 withdrawal-induced apoptosis, whereas cell death is accelerated in cells unable to express GILZ [3].
  • Cloning, chromosomal assignment and tissue distribution of human GILZ, a glucocorticoid hormone-induced gene [4].
  • A glucocorticoid-induced leucine-zipper protein, GILZ, inhibits adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells [5].
  • Time-course experiments showed that in wild-type (WT) thymocytes GILZ up-regulation was followed by sequential Bcl-xL decreased expression and activation of caspase-8 and of caspase-3 [6].

Anatomical context of TSC22D3


Associations of TSC22D3 with chemical compounds

  • Our present results indicate that histamine, IL-4 and IL-5 alone or in combination with SCF do not downregulate GILZ production by MCs [8].
  • Interestingly, both SGK1 and GILZ appear to negatively regulate tonic inhibition of ENaC and thus use disinhibition to propagate the rapid effects of aldosterone to increase sodium reabsorption in tight epithelia [9].
  • The effect of GILZ on LPS-, IL-1beta-, and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-induced NF-kappaB activation was assessed in BEAS-2B cells overexpressing GILZ [10].
  • In addition, quantitative PCR shows that DEX down-regulates GR and up-regulates glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper levels, whereas ICI 182,780 does not counteract these effects [11].
  • To determine whether the in vitro outcomes could predict in vivo effects of GCs, 15 individuals underwent a 0.25-mg dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test (DST) while determining GILZ and IL-2 mRNA levels in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells incubated with hydrocortisone, DEX, budesonide, and prednisolone [12].

Other interactions of TSC22D3

  • We also investigated whether GILZ production was modulated by (i) IL-10, because of its common immunosuppressive properties with GCs, (ii) histamine because of its pro-inflammatory properties and (iii) IL-4 and IL-5 because of their ability to favour MC survival and proliferation with SCF [8].
  • Disinhibitory pathways for control of sodium transport: regulation of ENaC by SGK1 and GILZ [9].
  • Results indicate that GILZ inhibits both T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced interleukin-2/interleukin-2 receptor expression and NF-kappaB activity [13].
  • We show that induction of GILZ (GC-induced leucine zipper) is involved in this phenomenon [2].
  • Deletion and domain swap experiments identified small, discreet positive and negative elements in A-Myb and c-Myb that were required for the regulation of specific genes, such as DHRS2, DSIPI, and mim-1 [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TSC22D3


  1. Synthesis of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) by macrophages: an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mechanism shared by glucocorticoids and IL-10. Berrebi, D., Bruscoli, S., Cohen, N., Foussat, A., Migliorati, G., Bouchet-Delbos, L., Maillot, M.C., Portier, A., Couderc, J., Galanaud, P., Peuchmaur, M., Riccardi, C., Emilie, D. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. GILZ expression in human dendritic cells redirects their maturation and prevents antigen-specific T lymphocyte response. Cohen, N., Mouly, E., Hamdi, H., Maillot, M.C., Pallardy, M., Godot, V., Capel, F., Balian, A., Naveau, S., Galanaud, P., Lemoine, F.M., Emilie, D. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. GILZ, a new target for the transcription factor FoxO3, protects T lymphocytes from interleukin-2 withdrawal-induced apoptosis. Asselin-Labat, M.L., David, M., Biola-Vidamment, A., Lecoeuche, D., Zennaro, M.C., Bertoglio, J., Pallardy, M. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning, chromosomal assignment and tissue distribution of human GILZ, a glucocorticoid hormone-induced gene. Cannarile, L., Zollo, O., D'Adamio, F., Ayroldi, E., Marchetti, C., Tabilio, A., Bruscoli, S., Riccardi, C. Cell Death Differ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. A glucocorticoid-induced leucine-zipper protein, GILZ, inhibits adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells. Shi, X., Shi, W., Li, Q., Song, B., Wan, M., Bai, S., Cao, X. EMBO Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Decrease of Bcl-xL and augmentation of thymocyte apoptosis in GILZ overexpressing transgenic mice. Delfino, D.V., Agostini, M., Spinicelli, S., Vito, P., Riccardi, C. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of AP-1 by the glucocorticoid-inducible protein GILZ. Mittelstadt, P.R., Ashwell, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Dexamethasone and IL-10 stimulate glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper synthesis by human mast cells. Godot, V., Garcia, G., Capel, F., Arock, M., Durand-Gasselin, I., Asselin-Labat, M.L., Emilie, D., Humbert, M. Allergy (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Disinhibitory pathways for control of sodium transport: regulation of ENaC by SGK1 and GILZ. Bhalla, V., Soundararajan, R., Pao, A.C., Li, H., Pearce, D. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids is mediated by glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper in epithelial cells. Eddleston, J., Herschbach, J., Wagelie-Steffen, A.L., Christiansen, S.C., Zuraw, B.L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Estrogen Receptor Antagonist Fulvestrant (ICI 182,780) Inhibits the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Glucocorticoids. Cuzzocrea, S., Bruscoli, S., Crisafulli, C., Mazzon, E., Agostini, M., Mui??, C., Esposito, E., Di Virgilio, R., Meli, R., Vegeto, E., Maggi, A., Riccardi, C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential regulation of synthetic glucocorticoids on gene expression levels of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper and interleukin-2. Smit, P., Russcher, H., de Jong, F.H., Brinkmann, A.O., Lamberts, S.W., Koper, J.W. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Modulation of T-cell activation by the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper factor via inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB. Ayroldi, E., Migliorati, G., Bruscoli, S., Marchetti, C., Zollo, O., Cannarile, L., D'Adamio, F., Riccardi, C. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Positive and negative determinants of target gene specificity in myb transcription factors. Lei, W., Rushton, J.J., Davis, L.M., Liu, F., Ness, S.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. hDIP--a potential transcriptional regulator related to murine TSC-22 and Drosophila shortsighted (shs)--is expressed in a large number of human tissues. Vogel, P., Mägert, H.J., Cieslak, A., Adermann, K., Forssmann, W.G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The conserved lymphokine element 0 is a powerful activator and target for corticosteroid inhibition in human interleukin-5 transcription. Arthaningtyas, E., Kok, C.C., Mordvinov, V.A., Sanderson, C.J. Growth Factors (2005) [Pubmed]
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