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Gene Review

Stx4a  -  syntaxin 4A (placental)

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Stx4, Syn-4, Syn4, Syntaxin-4
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Disease relevance of Stx4a


High impact information on Stx4a


Biological context of Stx4a


Anatomical context of Stx4a


Associations of Stx4a with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Stx4a

  • Membrane-bound Mlgl from MDCK cell lysates was coimmunoprecipitated with syntaxin 4, a component of the exocytic machinery at the basolateral membrane, but not with other plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) proteins that are either absent from or not restricted to the basolateral membrane domain [15].
  • This is the first localization of SNAP-23 within a polarized tissue and suggests that this t-SNAREs may interact with syntaxin-4 to mediate basolateral secretion [16].

Enzymatic interactions of Stx4a


Other interactions of Stx4a


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Stx4a

  • Furthermore, reduction in syntaxin 4 protein levels in this tissue can account for the impairment in whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in this animal model [3].
  • In addition, immunoprecipitation of the expressed syntaxin 4 cytoplasmic domain resulted in an insulin-stimulated increase in the coimmunoprecipitation of GLUT4-containing vesicles [2].
  • Moreover, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that Syntaxin 4 was principally localized to the beta-cells and not the alpha-cells of the mouse islet [9].
  • Full-length munc18c(1-592), munc18c(1-139) and munc18c(1-225), but not munc18c(226-592), munc18c(1-100), munc18c(43-139) or munc18c(66-139), interacted with the cytoplasmic portion of syntaxin 4, Stx4(2-273), as assessed by yeast two-hybrid assay of growth on nutritionally deficient media and by beta-galactosidase reporter induction [20].


  1. Syntaxin 4 expression affects glucose transporter 8 translocation and embryo survival. Wyman, A.H., Chi, M., Riley, J., Carayannopoulos, M.O., Yang, C., Coker, K.J., Pessin, J.E., Moley, K.H. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Syntaxin 4, VAMP2, and/or VAMP3/cellubrevin are functional target membrane and vesicle SNAP receptors for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. Olson, A.L., Knight, J.B., Pessin, J.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Syntaxin 4 heterozygous knockout mice develop muscle insulin resistance. Yang, C., Coker, K.J., Kim, J.K., Mora, S., Thurmond, D.C., Davis, A.C., Yang, B., Williamson, R.A., Shulman, G.I., Pessin, J.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters requires SNARE-complex proteins. Cheatham, B., Volchuk, A., Kahn, C.R., Wang, L., Rhodes, C.J., Klip, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. The t-SNARE syntaxin 4 is regulated during macrophage activation to function in membrane traffic and cytokine secretion. Pagan, J.K., Wylie, F.G., Joseph, S., Widberg, C., Bryant, N.J., James, D.E., Stow, J.L. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The stimulus-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c facilitates vesicle exocytosis. Oh, E., Thurmond, D.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by Munc18c in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Thurmond, D.C., Ceresa, B.P., Okada, S., Elmendorf, J.S., Coker, K., Pessin, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Syntaxin 4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: regulation by insulin and participation in insulin-dependent glucose transport. Volchuk, A., Wang, Q., Ewart, H.S., Liu, Z., He, L., Bennett, M.K., Klip, A. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Syntaxin 4 facilitates biphasic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. Spurlin, B.A., Thurmond, D.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Syntaxin 4 transgenic mice exhibit enhanced insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Spurlin, B.A., Park, S.Y., Nevins, A.K., Kim, J.K., Thurmond, D.C. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The vesicle- and target-SNARE proteins that mediate Glut4 vesicle fusion are localized in detergent-insoluble lipid rafts present on distinct intracellular membranes. Chamberlain, L.H., Gould, G.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. SNAP23 promotes insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: possible interaction with cytoskeleton. Foster, L.J., Yaworsky, K., Trimble, W.S., Klip, A. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome maturation arrest: mycobacterial phosphatidylinositol analog phosphatidylinositol mannoside stimulates early endosomal fusion. Vergne, I., Fratti, R.A., Hill, P.J., Chua, J., Belisle, J., Deretic, V. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Filamentous actin regulates insulin exocytosis through direct interaction with Syntaxin 4. Jewell, J.L., Luo, W., Oh, E., Wang, Z., Thurmond, D.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  15. Mammalian homolog of Drosophila tumor suppressor lethal (2) giant larvae interacts with basolateral exocytic machinery in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Müsch, A., Cohen, D., Yeaman, C., Nelson, W.J., Rodriguez-Boulan, E., Brennwald, P.J. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. SNAP-23 is located in the basolateral plasma membrane of rat pancreatic acinar cells. Gaisano, H.Y., Sheu, L., Wong, P.P., Klip, A., Trimble, W.S. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Binary interactions of the SNARE proteins syntaxin-4, SNAP23, and VAMP-2 and their regulation by phosphorylation. Foster, L.J., Yeung, B., Mohtashami, M., Ross, K., Trimble, W.S., Klip, A. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional studies in 3T3L1 cells support a role for SNARE proteins in insulin stimulation of GLUT4 translocation. Macaulay, S.L., Hewish, D.R., Gough, K.H., Stoichevska, V., MacPherson, S.F., Jagadish, M., Ward, C.W. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. SNARE expression and distribution during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Torrejón-Escribano, B., Gómez de Aranda, I., Blasi, J. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Definition of a minimal munc18c domain that interacts with syntaxin 4. Grusovin, J., Stoichevska, V., Gough, K.H., Nunan, K., Ward, C.W., Macaulay, S.L. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
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