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Gene Review

Tnp1  -  transition protein 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: STP-1, Spermatid nuclear transition protein 1, Stp-1, TP-1, TP1, ...
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Disease relevance of Tnp1


High impact information on Tnp1


Biological context of Tnp1

  • Nucleoprotein transitions during spermiogenesis in mice with transition nuclear protein Tnp1 and Tnp2 mutations [9].
  • Epididymal sperm from the nine possible Tnp1 and Tnp2 null genotypes demonstrated a general decrease in normal morphology, motility, chromatin condensation, and degree of protamine 2 processing with decreasing levels of transition proteins in mutant sperm [10].
  • Comparison of the nucleotide sequences for Stp-1 and the mouse gene coding for protamine P1 suggests a possible evolutionary relationship [11].
  • The mouse transition protein 1 gene contains a B1 repetitive element and is located on chromosome 1 [12].
  • We also show that sequences similar to Prot1C are found in the promoter region of other testis-specific genes, such as the transition protein 1-encoding gene promoter which is thought to have derived from the P1 genes [13].

Anatomical context of Tnp1

  • It is believed that the transition proteins (Tnp1 and Tnp2) participate in the removal of the nucleohistones and in the initial condensation of the spermatid nucleus [14].
  • Serial sections of rat testis exposed separately to antisera to TP1 and TP2 showed that the great majority of labeled tubules were reactive to both antisera [15].
  • Southern blot hybridization to genomic DNA isolated from a panel of mouse-hamster somatic cell hybrids unambiguously mapped Stp-1 to mouse chromosome 1 [11].
  • Our results reveal at least four additional forms of translational control over these mRNAs: (1) The vast majority of the active forms of the transition protein 1 mRNA and both protamine mRNAs sediment with polysomes in which the ribosomes are spaced closer than is typical of mammalian mRNAs (31-38 vs 80-100 bases apart) [16].
  • Two kinds of active protein fraction, TP1 and TP2, were isolated from bovine thymus extracts [17].

Associations of Tnp1 with chemical compounds

  • Experiments conducted with two fragments of TP1 containing arginine and lysine residues demonstrated that DNA binding by TP1 must involve more than these basic sequences [18].
  • Cyclosporin, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Permeability Transition, PT, restored normal respiration rates to lymphocytes from old mice, suggesting enhanced susceptibility to PT activation [19].

Other interactions of Tnp1

  • Abnormalities and reduced reproductive potential of sperm from Tnp1- and Tnp2-null double mutant mice [10].
  • Tp-1 mapped 0.8 +/- 0.8 cM proximal and Sag 12.8 +/- 1.7 cM distal to (Vil,Bcg) [20].
  • The proximal deletion breakpoint maps within the 0.8-cM segment separating Tp1 and Vil [21].
  • The maximum size of the Spr deletion is estimated to be 16 cM, the genetic distance between Tp1 and Acrg [21].
  • Mice defective in spermiogenesis (Tnp1(-/-), Gmcl1(-/-), Asm(-/-)) showed wild-type mid-preleptotene and bouquet frequencies [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tnp1

  • Isoelectric focusing showed the isoelectric point at pH 5.65 for TP1 and pH 5.4 for TP2 [17].
  • To identify the cellular protein interacting with the TP1 promoter, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assays using binding sequences of known transcription factors, that carry partial homology to the crucial sequences of the EBNA-2 responsive element (EBNA-2RE), as competitor [1].


  1. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 exerts its transactivating function through interaction with recombination signal binding protein RBP-J kappa, the homologue of Drosophila Suppressor of Hairless. Zimber-Strobl, U., Strobl, L.J., Meitinger, C., Hinrichs, R., Sakai, T., Furukawa, T., Honjo, T., Bornkamm, G.W. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition Facilitates Bladder Cancer Metastasis: Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-2. Chaffer, C.L., Brennan, J.P., Slavin, J.L., Blick, T., Thompson, E.W., Williams, E.D. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro growth of Mycobacterium lepraemurium: Transition from in vivo grown to in vitro adaptation. Dhople, A.M., Hanks, J.H. The Kurume medical journal. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Soluble TNF Mediates the Transition from Pulmonary Inflammation to Fibrosis. Oikonomou, N., Harokopos, V., Zalevsky, J., Valavanis, C., Kotanidou, A., Szymkowski, D.E., Kollias, G., Aidinis, V. PLoS ONE (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Constitutively Active Type I Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Causes Transformation and Xenograft Growth of Immortalized Mammary Epithelial Cells and Is Accompanied by an Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Mediated by NF-{kappa}B and Snail. Kim, H.J., Litzenburger, B.C., Cui, X., Delgado, D.A., Grabiner, B.C., Lin, X., Lewis, M.T., Gottardis, M.M., Wong, T.W., Attar, R.M., Carboni, J.M., Lee, A.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Targeted disruption of the transition protein 2 gene affects sperm chromatin structure and reduces fertility in mice. Zhao, M., Shirley, C.R., Yu, Y.E., Mohapatra, B., Zhang, Y., Unni, E., Deng, J.M., Arango, N.A., Terry, N.H., Weil, M.M., Russell, L.D., Behringer, R.R., Meistrich, M.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced expression of the murine FMR1 gene during germ cell proliferation suggests a special function in both the male and the female gonad. Bächner, D., Manca, A., Steinbach, P., Wöhrle, D., Just, W., Vogel, W., Hameister, H., Poustka, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. DNA methylation and demethylation events during meiotic prophase in the mouse testis. Trasler, J.M., Hake, L.E., Johnson, P.A., Alcivar, A.A., Millette, C.F., Hecht, N.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleoprotein transitions during spermiogenesis in mice with transition nuclear protein Tnp1 and Tnp2 mutations. Zhao, M., Shirley, C.R., Mounsey, S., Meistrich, M.L. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Abnormalities and reduced reproductive potential of sperm from Tnp1- and Tnp2-null double mutant mice. Shirley, C.R., Hayashi, S., Mounsey, S., Yanagimachi, R., Meistrich, M.L. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide sequence of the Stp-1 gene coding for rat spermatid nuclear transition protein 1 (TP1): homology with protamine P1 and assignment of the mouse Stp-1 gene to chromosome 1. Heidaran, M.A., Kozak, C.A., Kistler, W.S. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. The mouse transition protein 1 gene contains a B1 repetitive element and is located on chromosome 1. Yelick, P.C., Kozak, C., Kwon, Y.K., Seldin, M.F., Hecht, N.B. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of conserved potential regulatory sequences of the protamine-encoding P1 genes from ten different mammals. Queralt, R., Oliva, R. Gene (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Teratozoospermia in mice lacking the transition protein 2 (Tnp2). Adham, I.M., Nayernia, K., Burkhardt-Göttges, E., Topaloglu O, n.u.l.l., Dixkens, C., Holstein, A.F., Engel, W. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunohistochemical localization of spermatid nuclear transition protein 2 in the testes of rats and mice. Alfonso, P.J., Kistler, W.S. Biol. Reprod. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Multiple controls over the efficiency of translation of the mRNAs encoding transition proteins, protamines, and the mitochondrial capsule selenoprotein in late spermatids in mice. Kleene, K.C. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. A hypocalcemic and lympnocyte-stimulating substance isolated from thymus extracts, and its physicochemical properties. Mizutani Shimizu, M., Suzuki, I., Mizutani, T., Hayase, S., Mizutani, A. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Condensation of DNA by spermatid basic nuclear proteins. Brewer, L., Corzett, M., Balhorn, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphocytes from old mice: enhanced activation of the permeability transition. Rottenberg, H., Wu, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. The host resistance locus Bcg is tightly linked to a group of cytoskeleton-associated protein genes that include villin and desmin. Malo, D., Schurr, E., Epstein, D.J., Vekemans, M., Skamene, E., Gros, P. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular characterization of a deletion encompassing the splotch mutation on mouse chromosome 1. Epstein, D.J., Malo, D., Vekemans, M., Gros, P. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages. Liebe, B., Petukhova, G., Barchi, M., Bellani, M., Braselmann, H., Nakano, T., Pandita, T.K., Jasin, M., Fornace, A., Meistrich, M.L., Baarends, W.M., Schimenti, J., de Lange, T., Keeney, S., Camerini-Otero, R.D., Scherthan, H. Exp. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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