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Gene Review

Vil1  -  villin 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Vil, Villin-1
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Disease relevance of Vil1


High impact information on Vil1

  • METHODS: This study presents transgenic mice that express K-ras(V12G), the most frequent oncogenic mutation in human tumors, under control of the murine villin promoter in epithelial cells of the large and small intestine [6].
  • Villin, a tissue-specific, actin-binding protein of the brush border, was expressed in the two cell types [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of villin and the absence of vimentin in M cells support the intestinal origin of M cells [7].
  • Cytosolic distribution of villin in M cells from mouse Peyer's patches correlates with the absence of a brush border [7].
  • These results suggest that in vivo, villin is not necessary for the bundling of F-actin microfilaments, whereas it is necessary for the reorganization elicited by various signals [8].

Biological context of Vil1


Anatomical context of Vil1

  • In 17-day-old embryos, a transient elevation of villin mRNA occurred just prior to a dramatic increase in microvilli length and density [11].
  • In this study, cRNA probes were hybridized in situ to investigate the expression of NEP and villin genes in embryo and adult mouse enterocytes [11].
  • We show that the ontogeny of villin expression is limited to the epithelial cell lineages of the digestive and uro-genital tracts and accounts for the tissue-specific expression observed in adult mice [12].
  • During the development of the primitive gut, villin is faintly and discontinuously expressed in the invaginating foregut but it is expressed in every cell bordering the hindgut pocket [12].
  • Conversely, during the development of the excretory and genital system, villin is only expressed after the mesenchyme/epithelium conversion following the appearance of tubular structures [12].

Associations of Vil1 with chemical compounds

  • Localization of protease nexin-1 gene Spi4 between villin and acetylcholine receptor gamma genes on mouse Chromosome 1 [13].
  • In wild-type animals, isolated brush borders were disrupted by the addition of Ca(2+), whereas Ca(2+) had no effect in villin-null isolates [8].
  • Oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium, an agent that causes colonic epithelial injury, induced large mucosal lesions resulting in a higher death probability in mice lacking villin, 36 +/- 9.6%, compared with wild-type mice, 70 +/- 8.8%, at day 13 [8].
  • These villin gene localizations add a fourth locus to the conserved gene cluster encoding the fast skeletal muscle isoform of the myosin light chain, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and the gamma crystallins and confirm the partial homology of the human chromosome 2 long arm and mouse chromosome 1 [14].
  • To genetically assess the role of c-Myc during development and homeostasis of the mammalian intestine we induced deletion of the c-myc(flox) allele in the villi and intestinal stem cell-bearing crypts of juvenile and adult mice, via tamoxifen-induced activation of the CreER(T2) recombinase, driven by the villin promoter [15].

Regulatory relationships of Vil1


Other interactions of Vil1

  • The 16/207 recombinants observed between Lsh/Vil and Cryg provide an estimated recombination frequency of 0.077 +/- 0.019, equivalent to a map distance of 7.7 +/- 1.9 cM [17].
  • The proximal deletion breakpoint maps within the 0.8-cM segment separating Tp1 and Vil [18].
  • The minimum size of the Spr deletion would therefore be limited to 14 cM, the genetic distance between Vil and Akp-3 [18].
  • An additional 47 backcross progeny from a cross between C57BL/10ScSn and B10.L-Lshr/s mice were examined for the cosegregation of Myl-1 and Vil RFLPs with Lsh phenotypic differences [19].
  • In the future, regulatory elements of the villin gene may be used to target the early expression of oncogenes to the digestive and urogenital tracts of transgenic mice [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vil1


  1. Expression and localization of villin, fimbrin, and myosin I in differentiating mouse F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Ezzell, R.M., Leung, J., Collins, K., Chafel, M.M., Cardozo, T.J., Matsudaira, P.T. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Chronic gastritis in the hypochlorhydric gastrin-deficient mouse progresses to adenocarcinoma. Zavros, Y., Eaton, K.A., Kang, W., Rathinavelu, S., Katukuri, V., Kao, J.Y., Samuelson, L.C., Merchant, J.L. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Shigella flexneri infection is dependent on villin in the mouse intestine and in primary cultures of intestinal epithelial cells. Athman, R., Fernandez, M.I., Gounon, P., Sansonetti, P., Louvard, D., Philpott, D., Robine, S. Cell. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The epithelial cell cytoskeleton and intracellular trafficking. III. How is villin involved in the actin cytoskeleton dynamics in intestinal cells? Athman, R., Louvard, D., Robine, S. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. F9 teratocarcinoma aggregates express villin upon differentiation into visceral endoderm-like cells. Buc-Caron, M.H., Lamblin, D., Kellermann, O. Biol. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Targeted expression of oncogenic K-ras in intestinal epithelium causes spontaneous tumorigenesis in mice. Janssen, K.P., el-Marjou, F., Pinto, D., Sastre, X., Rouillard, D., Fouquet, C., Soussi, T., Louvard, D., Robine, S. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Cytosolic distribution of villin in M cells from mouse Peyer's patches correlates with the absence of a brush border. Kerneis, S., Bogdanova, A., Colucci-Guyon, E., Kraehenbuhl, J.P., Pringault, E. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo, villin is required for Ca(2+)-dependent F-actin disruption in intestinal brush borders. Ferrary, E., Cohen-Tannoudji, M., Pehau-Arnaudet, G., Lapillonne, A., Athman, R., Ruiz, T., Boulouha, L., El Marjou, F., Doye, A., Fontaine, J.J., Antony, C., Babinet, C., Louvard, D., Jaisser, F., Robine, S. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Linkage analysis of the Bcg gene on mouse chromosome 1. Identification of a tightly linked marker. Schurr, E., Skamene, E., Forget, A., Gros, P. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. High-resolution linkage map in the vicinity of the host resistance locus Bcg. Malo, D., Vidal, S.M., Hu, J., Skamene, E., Gros, P. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative analysis of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and villin gene expression during mouse embryogenesis and enterocyte maturation. Landry, C., Huet, C., Mangeat, P., Sahuquet, A., Louvard, D., Crine, P. Differentiation (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Developmental regulation of villin gene expression in the epithelial cell lineages of mouse digestive and urogenital tracts. Maunoury, R., Robine, S., Pringault, E., Léonard, N., Gaillard, J.A., Louvard, D. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Localization of protease nexin-1 gene Spi4 between villin and acetylcholine receptor gamma genes on mouse Chromosome 1. Voss, G.C., Botteri, F., Monard, D., Jockusch, H. Mamm. Genome (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Localization of the villin gene on human chromosome 2q35-q36 and on mouse chromosome 1. Rousseau-Merck, M.F., Simon-Chazottes, D., Arpin, M., Pringault, E., Louvard, D., Guénet, J.L., Berger, R. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. c-Myc is required for the formation of intestinal crypts but dispensable for homeostasis of the adult intestinal epithelium. Bettess, M.D., Dubois, N., Murphy, M.J., Dubey, C., Roger, C., Robine, S., Trumpp, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Villin enhances hepatocyte growth factor-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling in epithelial cells. Athman, R., Louvard, D., Robine, S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Mapping Creb-1 to chromosome 1 in the mouse. Barton, C.H., Ajioka, J.W., Roach, T.I., Blackwell, J.M. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular characterization of a deletion encompassing the splotch mutation on mouse chromosome 1. Epstein, D.J., Malo, D., Vekemans, M., Gros, P. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. A genetic map of mouse chromosome 1 near the Lsh-Ity-Bcg disease resistance locus. Mock, B., Krall, M., Blackwell, J., O'Brien, A., Schurr, E., Gros, P., Skamene, E., Potter, M. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. In vivo absorption of water and electrolytes in mouse intestine. Application to villin -/- mice. Athman, R., Tsocas, A., Presset, O., Robine, S., Rozé, C., Ferrary, E. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic and physical mapping of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) in chicken. Hu, J., Bumstead, N., Burke, D., Ponce de León, F.A., Skamene, E., Gros, P., Malo, D. Mamm. Genome (1995) [Pubmed]
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