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Gene Review

Actb  -  actin, beta

Mus musculus

Synonyms: A-X actin-like protein, Actin, cytoplasmic 1, Actx, Beta-actin, E430023M04Rik, ...
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Disease relevance of Actb


Psychiatry related information on Actb


High impact information on Actb

  • The cardiac actin protein, normally found only in myofibrils, is stably accumulated at a high level, about one-third that of the endogenous mouse beta-actin [7].
  • Using cloned cDNA probes for beta actin and alpha tubulin, we show that changes in mRNA activity correspond to a specific loss of these sequences during cellular differentiation [8].
  • A primary response to many growth factor-induced transmembrane signals is the rapid activation of transcription of the proto-oncogene c-fos and other early-response genes, including the beta-actin gene [9].
  • When mnt is expressed as a transgene under control of the beta-actin promoter in mice the transgenic embryos exhibit a delay in development and die during mid-gestation, when c- and N-Myc functions are critical [10].
  • After beta-actin, the cytosolic brain isoform of creatine kinase was the next most abundant bundle protein; at approximately 0.5 mM, creatine kinase is capable of maintaining high ATP levels despite 1 mM/s ATP consumption by the plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Actb


Biological context of Actb

  • These CD-induced responses were reversible since recovering cells progressed through the G2 phase and resumed normal growth while beta-actin mRNA and protein synthesis rapidly returned to control levels [16].
  • The rapid return of beta-actin mRNA to basal levels following CD removal did not require protein synthesis nor did it require progression through the G2 phase of the cell cycle [16].
  • In contrast, transfection of another mutant form of the beta-actin gene which encodes an unstable protein had no impact on cell morphology or cytoarchitecture [17].
  • The role of the beta-actin protein in generating the enlarged cell phenotype was examined by transfecting a mutant form of the human beta-actin gene [17].
  • The gene coding for the cytoplasmic beta-actin is located on mouse chromosome 5 [18].

Anatomical context of Actb


Associations of Actb with chemical compounds

  • In one such resistant line, beta-actin was disrupted by viral insertion, and subsequent reconstitution of beta-actin expression levels in the mutant line Actin(mut) restored its sensitivity to TNF [22].
  • Two protein synthesis inhibitors, cycloheximide and puromycin, blocked the CD-induced increase in beta-actin mRNA, in contrast to the serum-induced increase which is insensitive to inhibitors of protein synthesis [16].
  • Transfectant C2 clones expressing high levels of human beta-actin displayed increases in cell surface area [17].
  • According to the nucleotide sequencing analysis for one of the candidate clones, pMA 30, the predicted amino acid sequence was composed of 375 amino acids and was similar to that of beta-actin, but differed at the 28th amino acid in that leucine replaced the arginine of beta-actin [23].
  • On the other hand, neither orchiectomy nor androgen treatment affected levels of mRNAs for EGFR in the kidney or mRNAs for the structural protein beta-actin in the liver [24].

Regulatory relationships of Actb


Other interactions of Actb

  • In contrast, myf5, beta-actin, UCP1 and glut1 mRNA levels gradually decreased during 8 days [30].
  • However, mRNA expression of an early response gene, JunB, and constitutively expressed genes beta-actin and GAPDH were not inhibited by tyrphostin [31].
  • Expression of beta-actin, however, was slightly increased in both rapidly growing and EGF-restimulated quiescent BALB/MK cells treated with TGF beta [32].
  • In the studies reported here, it was found that inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, methylglyoxal-bis[quanylhydrazone] (MGBG) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), prevent mitogen-induced accumulation of mRNAs encoding major cytoskeletal components, beta-actin and alpha-tubulin, in mouse splenocytes [33].
  • However, the mouse M1 progenitor myeloid cell line does not express RNA for IGF-I, as demonstrated by the absence of protected transcripts for IGF-I in the presence of abundant protected transcripts for beta-actin [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Actb


  1. Expression of tumor necrosis factor by different tumor cell lines results either in tumor suppression or augmented metastasis. Qin, Z., Krüger-Krasagakes, S., Kunzendorf, U., Hock, H., Diamantstein, T., Blankenstein, T. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The ZiN/POZ domain of ZF5 is required for both transcriptional activation and repression. Kaplan, J., Calame, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Construction of human factor IX expression vectors in retroviral vector frames optimized for muscle cells. Wang, J.M., Zheng, H., Sugahara, Y., Tan, J., Yao, S.N., Olson, E., Kurachi, K. Hum. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 induces a gender-related decrease in bone mineral density in transgenic mice. Salih, D.A., Mohan, S., Kasukawa, Y., Tripathi, G., Lovett, F.A., Anderson, N.F., Carter, E.J., Wergedal, J.E., Baylink, D.J., Pell, J.M. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of housekeeping genes in Hodgkin's disease lymph nodes. Perfetti, V., Manenti, G., Dragani, T.A. Leukemia (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Transgenic mice expressing the human C99 terminal fragment of betaAPP: effects on cytochrome oxidase activity in skeletal muscle and brain. Strazielle, C., Dumont, M., Fukuchi, K., Lalonde, R. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of human cardiac actin in mouse L cells: a sarcomeric actin associates with a nonmuscle cytoskeleton. Gunning, P., Ponte, P., Kedes, L., Hickey, R.J., Skoultchi, A.I. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Decreases in tubulin and actin gene expression prior to morphological differentiation of 3T3 adipocytes. Spiegelman, B.M., Farmer, S.R. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Transactivation of c-fos and beta-actin genes by raf as a step in early response to transmembrane signals. Jamal, S., Ziff, E. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Mnt, a novel Max-interacting protein is coexpressed with Myc in proliferating cells and mediates repression at Myc binding sites. Hurlin, P.J., Quéva, C., Eisenman, R.N. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Hair Bundles Are Specialized for ATP Delivery via Creatine Kinase. Shin, J.B., Streijger, F., Beynon, A., Peters, T., Gadzala, L., McMillen, D., Bystrom, C., Van der Zee, C.E., Wallimann, T., Gillespie, P.G. Neuron (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Melatonin alters the metabolism of the beta-amyloid precursor protein in the neuroendocrine cell line PC12. Song, W., Lahiri, D.K. J. Mol. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation is associated with methylation and differential stability of poly(A)+ RNA transcripts. Vizirianakis, I.S., Tsiftsoglou, A.S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Use of avian retroviral vectors to introduce transcriptional regulators into mammalian cells for analyses of tumor maintenance. Pao, W., Klimstra, D.S., Fisher, G.H., Varmus, H.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Pancreatic islet function in a transgenic mouse expressing fluorescent protein. Nyqvist, D., Mattsson, G., Köhler, M., Lev-Ram, V., Andersson, A., Carlsson, P.O., Nordin, A., Berggren, P.O., Jansson, L. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Cytochalasin D-induced actin gene expression in murine erythroleukemia cells. Sympson, C.J., Singleton, D., Geoghegan, T.E. Exp. Cell Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. High level expression of transfected beta- and gamma-actin genes differentially impacts on myoblast cytoarchitecture. Schevzov, G., Lloyd, C., Gunning, P. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. The genes coding for the cardiac muscle actin, the skeletal muscle actin and the cytoplasmic beta-actin are located on three different mouse chromosomes. Czosnek, H., Nudel, U., Mayer, Y., Barker, P.E., Pravtcheva, D.D., Ruddle, F.H., Yaffe, D. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Non-radioisotopic quantitative RT-PCR to detect changes in mRNA levels during early mouse embryo development. Yokoi, H., Natsuyama, S., Iwai, M., Noda, Y., Mori, T., Mori, K.J., Fujita, K., Nakayama, H., Fujita, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Specific inhibition of nitric oxide production in macrophages by phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides. Arima, H., Sakamoto, T., Aramaki, Y., Ishidate, K., Tsuchiya, S. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Riboprobe expression cassettes for measuring IGF-I, beta-actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase transcripts. Biragyn, A., Arkins, S., Kelley, K.W. J. Immunol. Methods (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Beta-actin is required for mitochondria clustering and ROS generation in TNF-induced, caspase-independent cell death. Li, J., Li, Q., Xie, C., Zhou, H., Wang, Y., Zhang, N., Shao, H., Chan, S.C., Peng, X., Lin, S.C., Han, J. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. cDNA cloning and sequence of a new type of actin in mouse B16 melanoma. Sadano, H., Taniguchi, S., Kakunaga, T., Baba, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Pretranslational enhancement of epidermal growth factor receptor by direct effect of testosterone in mouse liver. Noguchi, S., Ohba, Y., Oka, T. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Interleukin-6- and leukemia inhibitory factor-induced terminal differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells is blocked at an intermediate stage by constitutive c-myc. Hoffman-Liebermann, B., Liebermann, D.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. A Rho-dependent signaling pathway operating through myosin localizes beta-actin mRNA in fibroblasts. Latham, V.M., Yu, E.H., Tullio, A.N., Adelstein, R.S., Singer, R.H. Curr. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Involvement of gamma and beta actin isoforms in mouse neuroblastoma differentiation. Ulloa, L., Avila, J. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Selective rather than inductive mechanisms favour specific replacement of Purkinje cells by embryonic cerebellar cells transplanted to the cerebellum of adult Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mutant mice. Carletti, B., Rossi, F. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Suppression of STAT5 functions in liver, mammary glands, and T cells in cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein 1 transgenic mice. Matsumoto, A., Seki, Y., Kubo, M., Ohtsuka, S., Suzuki, A., Hayashi, I., Tsuji, K., Nakahata, T., Okabe, M., Yamada, S., Yoshimura, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcriptional regulation of muscle-specific genes during myoblast differentiation. Shimokawa, T., Kato, M., Ezaki, O., Hashimoto, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Roles of tyrosine kinases in the regulation of nitric oxide synthesis in murine liver cells: modulation of NF-kappa B activity by tyrosine kinases. Lee, B.S., Kang, H.S., Pyun, K.H., Choi, I. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Selective inhibition of growth-related gene expression in murine keratinocytes by transforming growth factor beta. Coffey, R.J., Bascom, C.C., Sipes, N.J., Graves-Deal, R., Weissman, B.E., Moses, H.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis affect the expression of genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins. Kamińska, B., Kaczmarek, L., Grzelakowska-Sztabert, B. FEBS Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Stage-dependent Dishevelled-1 expression during mouse spermatogenesis suggests a role in regulating spermatid morphological changes. Ma, P., Wang, H., Guo, R., Ma, Q., Yu, Z., Jiang, Y., Ge, Y., Ma, J., Xue, S., Han, D. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Restricted beta-galactosidase expression of a hygromycin-lacZ gene targeted to the beta-actin locus and embryonic lethality of beta-actin mutant mice. Shawlot, W., Deng, J.M., Fohn, L.E., Behringer, R.R. Transgenic Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Co-ordinate regulation of the cytoskeleton in 3T3 cells overexpressing thymosin-beta4. Golla, R., Philp, N., Safer, D., Chintapalli, J., Hoffman, R., Collins, L., Nachmias, V.T. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Suppression of growth and dissemination in human pre-B leukemia cells by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in scid mice. Yoshida, N., Ishii, E., Mohri, S., Nagumo, F., Yoshidomi, S., Miyazaki, S. Leuk. Lymphoma (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Antisense c-myc and immunostimulatory oligonucleotide inhibition of tumorigenesis in a murine B-cell lymphoma transplant model. Smith, J.B., Wickstrom, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
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