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Gene Review

Arnt  -  aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear...

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: ARNT protein, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, Dioxin receptor, nuclear translocator, HIF-1-beta, HIF1-beta, ...
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Disease relevance of Arnt


High impact information on Arnt

  • Both cDNAs contain the binding site sequence for the dioxin/nuclear translocator responsive element (Ah/Arnt-receptor) in conjunction with a barbiturate recognition sequence (Barbie box) [3].
  • Gel shift analysis with radiolabeled XRE and specific peptide antibodies toward AhR and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein (Arnt) revealed an OME-mediated translocation of the AhR.Arnt complex into the nuclei [4].
  • ARNT binds to the side of the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) that resembles an E-box (the sequence recognized by the majority of other basic helix-loop-helix proteins), whereas AHR binds to the side of the XRE that does not conform to the E-box sequence [5].
  • Purification of the DNA binding form of dioxin receptor. Role of the Arnt cofactor in regulation of dioxin receptor function [1].
  • Importantly, simultaneous expression of the receptor and Arnt resulted in synergistic induction of gene expression in vivo [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Arnt

  • To determine if ARNT plays a role in regulating ALDH3 in response to low oxygen tension, we studied the effects of 1% oxygen and the hypoxia mimic cobalt chloride on constitutive and inducible ALDH3 expression in rat hepatoma cells and rat corneal epithelial cells [2].

Biological context of Arnt

  • On the other hand, bacterially expressed AhR-Arnt heterodimer could not bind to the enhancer [6].
  • This preliminary report is the first study to suggest that the PAS proteins, AhR and Arnt, exhibit a daily oscillation pattern within multiple target tissues which may give insight into the tissue-specific toxic and biochemical responses mediated through this dimerization pair, as well as the physiological function of these proteins [7].
  • The AhR-Arnt heterodimer binds to the dioxin response element (DRE) to regulate target gene expression [8].
  • AhR and ARNT protein concentrations in fetal urogenital sinus on Gestation Days (GD) 16, 18, and 20 were similar to levels in ventral prostate on PND 7 [9].
  • These data demonstrate that Arnt plays a central role in control of dioxin receptor function by cooperatively modulating the DNA binding activity of the receptor in vitro and dioxin-dependent transactivation in vivo [1].

Anatomical context of Arnt


Associations of Arnt with chemical compounds

  • Transfectants of the point-mutated ARE-like motif showed marginally reduced response to tBHQ, but surprisingly, loss of response to TCDD, suggesting interference of flanking proteins with the AhR/Arnt complex [13].
  • The dioxin receptor and its nuclear translocator (Arnt) in the rat brain [10].
  • The interaction mechanism between dopaminergic receptor subtypes seems to be similar to that of other normosensitive models of turning previously studied (Barone et al., 1986; Robertson and Robertson, 1986; Arnt and Perregard, 1987; Asim et al., 1990; Pazo et al., 1993) [14].
  • The Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH3) is expressed differentially in a tissue-specific manner, occurring constitutively in some tissues and in others as a result of xenobiotic induction via the Ah receptor/ARNT pathway [2].
  • In addition to interaction with environmental pollutants, several transcription factors, steroid receptors, and growth factors are capable interacting with the AHR/ARNT complex, which suggests a constitutive role for the receptor complex [15].

Co-localisations of Arnt

  • There was no neuroanatomic evidence that AhR is preferentially colocalized with ARNT or ARNT2 [16].

Regulatory relationships of Arnt

  • The results suggest that differential expression of both AhR and ARNT are responsible for rat strain-specific differences in TCDD induced CYP1A1 expression [17].

Other interactions of Arnt


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arnt


  1. Purification of the DNA binding form of dioxin receptor. Role of the Arnt cofactor in regulation of dioxin receptor function. Mason, G.G., Witte, A.M., Whitelaw, M.L., Antonsson, C., McGuire, J., Wilhelmsson, A., Poellinger, L., Gustafsson, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypoxia exerts cell-type-specific effects on expression of the class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase gene. Reisdorph, R., Lindahl, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and functional characterization of the bile acid-sensitive methotrexate carrier from rat liver cells. Honscha, W., Dötsch, K.U., Thomsen, N., Petzinger, E. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Signal transduction-mediated activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. Backlund, M., Johansson, I., Mkrtchian, S., Ingelman-Sundberg, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a novel domain in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor required for DNA binding. Fukunaga, B.N., Hankinson, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. A novel induction mechanism of the rat CYP1A2 gene mediated by Ah receptor-Arnt heterodimer. Sogawa, K., Numayama-Tsuruta, K., Takahashi, T., Matsushita, N., Miura, C., Nikawa, J., Gotoh, O., Kikuchi, Y., Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Daily cycle of bHLH-PAS proteins, Ah receptor and Arnt, in multiple tissues of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Richardson, V.M., Santostefano, M.J., Birnbaum, L.S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. CyP40, but not Hsp70, in rabbit reticulocyte lysate causes the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-DNA complex formation. Shetty, P.V., Wang, X., Chan, W.K. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Ah receptor and ARNT protein and mRNA concentrations in rat prostate: effects of stage of development and 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment. Sommer, R.J., Sojka, K.M., Pollenz, R.S., Cooke, P.S., Peterson, R.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The dioxin receptor and its nuclear translocator (Arnt) in the rat brain. Kainu, T., Gustafsson, J.A., Pelto-Huikko, M. Neuroreport (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Responsiveness of the adult male rat reproductive tract to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure: Ah receptor and ARNT expression, CYP1A1 induction, and Ah receptor down-regulation. Roman, B.L., Pollenz, R.S., Peterson, R.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. In utero and lactational exposure of the male rat to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin impairs prostate development. 1. Effects on gene expression. Roman, B.L., Peterson, R.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Contribution of the Ah receptor to the phenolic antioxidant-mediated expression of human and rat UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A6 in Caco-2 and rat hepatoma 5L cells. Münzel, P.A., Schmohl, S., Buckler, F., Jaehrling, J., Raschko, F.T., Köhle, C., Bock, K.W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Turning behavior in rats with unilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus: synergism between D1 and D2 receptors. Murer, M.G., Sinay, V., Pazo, J.H. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins in rat and human testis. Schultz, R., Suominen, J., Värre, T., Hakovirta, H., Parvinen, M., Toppari, J., Pelto-Huikko, M. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Distribution of mRNAs encoding the arylhydrocarbon receptor, arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, and arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-2 in the rat brain and brainstem. Petersen, S.L., Curran, M.A., Marconi, S.A., Carpenter, C.D., Lubbers, L.S., McAbee, M.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Strain differences in cytochrome P4501A1 gene expression caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the rat liver: role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its nuclear translocator. Jana, N.R., Sarkar, S., Yonemoto, J., Tohyama, C., Sone, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in rat brain and pituitary. Huang, P., Rannug, A., Ahlbom, E., Håkansson, H., Ceccatelli, S. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Phenotypic characteristics of the nucleus pulposus: expression of hypoxia inducing factor-1, glucose transporter-1 and MMP-2. Rajpurohit, R., Risbud, M.V., Ducheyne, P., Vresilovic, E.J., Shapiro, I.M. Cell Tissue Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytochrome P-450 family 1 in rat embryo cell culture immortalized by Rausher leukemia virus. Vaiman, A.V., Shcherbak, N.P., Kobliakov, V.A. Biochemistry Mosc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is induced by kainic acid in rat hippocampal glial cells. Kitamura, Y., Takata, K., Kakimura, J., Umeki, M., Azukawa, S., Suzuki, S., Taniguchi, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
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