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Gene Review

GMDS  -  GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GDP-D-mannose dehydratase, GDP-mannose 4,6 dehydratase, GMD, SDR3E1
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Disease relevance of GMDS

  • The human GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase polypeptide shares 61% identity with the enzyme from Escherichia coli, suggesting broad evolutionary conservation [1].
  • GMDP for psoriasis [2].
  • The released TNF-alpha was shown to prime melanoma cells, previously unable to respond to GMDP by increasing expression of melanoma-associated antigens, making them sensitive to GMDP treatment [3].
  • Cloning and expression of Helicobacter pylori GDP-l-fucose synthesizing enzymes (GMD and GMER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [4].
  • We used monoclonal antibody, generated against N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta1-4-N-acetylmuramyl-alanyl-d-isoglutamine (GMDP), and phage display libraries of random peptides to select for oligopeptides, that mimic GMDP in their biological activity [5].

High impact information on GMDS


Biological context of GMDS


Anatomical context of GMDS

  • The message is expressed in all tissues and cell lines examined, and the cDNA complements Lec13, a Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line deficient in GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase activity [1].
  • Cloning of GMD from patient and control lymphocytes ruled out any mutation affecting the amino acid GMD sequence and the purified recombinant proteins from both controls and the patient showed identical specific activities [12].
  • One day after intervention, there was a strong increase of total leucocytes, monocytes and neutrophils in the groups receiving 25 or 50 mg GMDP [13].
  • CONCLUSIONS: GMDP can modulate endothelial cell activity without the induction of angiogenesis in vivo which may have implications for its use as a therapeutic agent [11].
  • In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, cancer patients with an elevated activity of all five LDH isoensymes were randomized to receive either a GMDP solution or a placebo; 63 patients were evaluated every third day for the mean daily number of episodes of nausea or vomiting, changes in clinical status, cell blood count and blood chemistry [14].

Associations of GMDS with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GMDS

  • Northern blot analyses indicate that the GMD transcript is absent in Lec13 cells, confirming the genetic deficiency of this locus in these cells [8].
  • In addition to bioprocessing applications, GMD technology should benefit the emerging fields of cellular and gene therapy [17].
  • No significant differences in post-vaccination haemagglutination inhibiting serum antibody titres were observed between the four groups, indicating that oral administration of GMDP together with influenza vaccination, does not lead to a higher vaccine efficacy [13].
  • TREATMENT: GMDP [0.01-100 micrograms/ml] applied to cell cultures for 6-72 h and to the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for four days [11].
  • DISCUSSION: More epidemiological studies about GMD in Puerto Rico need to be performed to better describe the prevalence of the condition in the island [18].


  1. Molecular cloning of human GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase and reconstitution of GDP-fucose biosynthesis in vitro. Sullivan, F.X., Kumar, R., Kriz, R., Stahl, M., Xu, G.Y., Rouse, J., Chang, X.J., Boodhoo, A., Potvin, B., Cumming, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. GMDP for psoriasis. Williamson, D., Chawla, M., Marks, R. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Endogenous tumour necrosis factor-alpha sensitise melanoma cells to glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide. Valyakina, T.I., Komaleva, R.L., Petrova, E.E., Malakhov, A.A., Shamborant, O.G., Andronova, T.M., Nesmeyanov, V.A. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and expression of Helicobacter pylori GDP-l-fucose synthesizing enzymes (GMD and GMER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Järvinen, N., Mäki, M., Räbinä, J., Roos, C., Mattila, P., Renkonen, R. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of pentadecapeptide mimicking muramyl peptide. Laman, A.G., Shepelyakovskaya, A.O., Berezin, I.A., Boziev, K.M., Rodionov, I.L., Chulina, I.A., Malakhova, G.V., Brovko, F.A., Murashev, A.N., Korpela, T.K., Nesmeyanov, V.A. Vaccine (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Composition of Drosophila melanogaster proteome involved in fucosylated glycan metabolism. Roos, C., Kolmer, M., Mattila, P., Renkonen, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of two GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductases synthesizing GDP-D-rhamnose in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91T. Kneidinger, B., Graninger, M., Adam, G., Puchberger, M., Kosma, P., Zayni, S., Messner, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning and expression of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase, a key enzyme for fucose metabolism defective in Lec13 cells. Ohyama, C., Smith, P.L., Angata, K., Fukuda, M.N., Lowe, J.B., Fukuda, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Recommendations of the German Association for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology for education and training in medical informatics. Haux, R., Dudeck, J., Gaus, W., Leven, F.J., Kunath, H., Michaelis, J., Pretschner, D.P., Sonntag, H.G., Thurmayr, R., Wolters, E. Methods of information in medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Protein threading by recursive dynamic programming. Thiele, R., Zimmer, R., Lengauer, T. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide (GMDP) modulates endothelial cell activities in vitro but has no effect on angiogenesis in vivo. Li, C.G., Kumar, S., Ledger, P.W., Ponting, J.M., Carette, M., Allan, E. Inflamm. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Defective intracellular activity of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II syndrome. Sturla, L., Etzioni, A., Bisso, A., Zanardi, D., De Flora, G., Silengo, L., De Flora, A., Tonetti, M. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Adjuvancy and reactogenicity of N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-dipeptide (GMDP) orally administered just prior to trivalent influenza subunit vaccine. A double-blind placebo-controlled study in nursing home residents. Palache, A.M., Beyer, W.E., Hendriksen, E., Gerez, L., Aston, R., Ledger, P.W., de Regt, V., Kerstens, R., Rothbarth, P.H., Osterhaus, A.D. Vaccine (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of systemic TNF-alpha cytotoxicity in cancer patients by D-peptidoglycan. Slesarev, V.I., Ellithorpe, R., Dimitroff, T. Med. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and functional expression of a novel GDP-6-deoxy-D-talose synthetase from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Mäki, M., Järvinen, N., Räbina, J., Maaheimo, H., Mattila, P., Renkonen, R. Glycobiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of media and derivatization chemistry for six aldehydes in a passive sampler. Liu, L.J., Dills, R.L., Paulsen, M., Kalman, D.A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Gel microdrop technology for rapid isolation of rare and high producer cells. Weaver, J.C., McGrath, P., Adams, S. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among pregnant women receiving health services at the Puerto Rico University Hospital, Puerto Rico, 1997-1998. Acosta, I., Aponte, Z., de-Jesús, Z., de-León, A., González, M.C., Hernández, J., Martínez, P., Santos, E.R., Pérez-Perdomo, R. Puerto Rico health sciences journal. (2001) [Pubmed]
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