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Gene Review

GAL  -  galanin/GMAP prepropeptide

Bos taurus

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Psychiatry related information on GAL

  • Several studies show that galanin is involved in control of pain threshold and acts synergistically with morphine, hence, inhibition of galanin degradation may be a pharmaceutical target for treatment of pain [1].

High impact information on GAL


Biological context of GAL


Anatomical context of GAL


Associations of GAL with chemical compounds

  • Pairs of lysine and arginine residues separate the galanin sequence N-terminally from the initiating methionine and a 29 amino acid leader peptide and C-terminally from a 59 amino acid peptide [4].
  • Elevated potassium stimulation of GAL mRNA was completely blocked, but pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide and histamine stimulations were only partially blocked, by cycloheximide [5].
  • The involvement of activator protein-1(AP-1) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in serine/threonine protein kinase activation of GAL gene transcription was assessed [5].
  • The regulation of GAL biosynthesis and secretion were studied by measuring changes in messenger RNA (mRNA(GAL], and peptide immunoreactivity, 24-72 h after stimulation of secretion (40 mM potassium or 10 microM veratridine), or exposure to stimulators of protein kinase C (100 nM phorbol myristate acetate) and protein kinase A (25 microM forskolin) [7].
  • GH and LH responsiveness to exogenous GH-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone was not significantly modulated by galanin in our experimental model [8].

Other interactions of GAL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAL


  1. Purification of a galanin degrading 70 kDa metallo-peptidase from bovine spinal cord. Juréus, A., Lindgren, M., Langel, U., Bartfai, T. Neuropeptides (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of a TPA-responsive element mediating preferential transactivation of the galanin gene promoter in chromaffin cells. Anouar, Y., MacArthur, L., Cohen, J., Iacangelo, A.L., Eiden, L.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 stimulate neuropeptide gene transcription and secretion in adrenochromaffin cells via activation of extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 protein kinases, and activator protein-1 transcription factors. Ait-Ali, D., Turquier, V., Grumolato, L., Yon, L., Jourdain, M., Alexandre, D., Eiden, L.E., Vaudry, H., Anouar, Y. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding a bovine galanin precursor protein in the adrenal medulla and chemical isolation of bovine gut galanin. Rökaeus, A., Carlquist, M. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Both inducible and constitutive activator protein-1-like transcription factors are used for transcriptional activation of the galanin gene by different first and second messenger pathways. Anouar, Y., Lee, H.W., Eiden, L.E. Mol. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Immunohistochemical localization of neuropeptides in bovine pancreas. Myojin, T., Kitamura, N., Hondo, E., Baltazar, E.T., Pearson, G.T., Yamada, J. Anatomia, histologia, embryologia. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Galanin gene expression in chromaffin cells is controlled by calcium and protein kinase signaling pathways. Rökaeus, A., Pruss, R.M., Eiden, L.E. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Modulation by galanin of growth hormone and gonadotropin secretion from perifused pituitary and median eminence of prepubertal male calves. Baratta, M., Saleri, R., Mascadri, C., Coy, D.H., Negro-Vilar, A., Tamanini, C., Giustina, A. Neuroendocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: a review focusing on periparturient animals. Ingvartsen, K.L., Andersen, J.B. J. Dairy Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Localization, morphology, and immunohistochemistry of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion neurons that innervate the gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor muscles in cattle. Chiocchetti, R., Grandis, A., Bombardi, C., Clavenzani, P., Spadari, A., Gentile, A., Bortolami, R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitric oxide-containing neurons in the bovine gut, with special reference to their relationship with VIP and galanin. Vittoria, A., Costagliola, A., Carrese, E., Mayer, B., Cecio, A. Arch. Histol. Cytol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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