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Gene Review

Gal  -  galanin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Galanin peptides, Galn
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Disease relevance of Gal


Psychiatry related information on Gal

  • The growing body of rodent literature implicating excess GAL in cognitive impairment is relevant to the overexpression of GAL in the basal forebrain during the progression of Alzheimer's disease [5].
  • GAL transgenic (GAL-tg) mice overexpressing endogenous GAL show deficits on the probe trial of the Morris water maze spatial learning task, on the social transmission of food preference olfactory memory task, and on the trace cued fear conditioning emotional learning and memory task [5].
  • The neuropeptide galanin and its receptors are expressed in the locus coeruleus (LC), a brain area associated with drug dependence and withdrawal [6].
  • These data support the hypothesis that galanin may have a role in functions related to mood states including affective disorders [7].
  • In the activity cage test, galanin overexpression counteracted the age-induced decrease in exploratory behavior [8].

High impact information on Gal

  • Galanin is widely distributed in enteric nerve terminals lining the gastrointestinal tract [9].
  • The hypothalamus plays a central role in the integrated regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight, and a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (ref. 1), galanin, CRH (ref. 3) and GLP-1 (ref. 4), have been implicated in the mediation of these effects [10].
  • To overcome HAR, we developed an enzymatic carbohydrate remodelling strategy designed to replace expression of the Gal alpha-1,3-Gal xenoepitope on the surface of porcine cells with the non-antigenic universal donor human blood group O antigen, the alpha-1,2-fucosyl lactosamine moiety (H-epitope) [11].
  • The mechanisms whereby hormones and neurotransmitters such as adrenaline, galanin and somatostatin, which are released by intraislet nerve endings and the pancreatic D cells, produce inhibition of insulin secretion are not clear [12].
  • Although some disaccharide GSL antigens can be recognized without processing, the responses to three other antigens, including the disaccharide GSL Gal(alpha1-->2)GalCer (Gal, galactose; GalCer, galactosylceramide), required removal of the terminal sugars to permit interaction with the T cell receptor [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gal


Biological context of Gal


Anatomical context of Gal


Associations of Gal with chemical compounds

  • Similarly, exposure to glutamate or staurosporine induced significantly more neuronal cell death in galanin knockout organotypic and dispersed primary hippocampal cultures than in WT controls [1].
  • Kainate-induced hippocampal cell death was greater in both the CA1 and CA3 regions of galanin knockout animals than in WT controls [1].
  • Neurokinin A and galanin in the thyroid gland: neuronal localization [23].
  • Galanin, substance P and dynorphin were also co-localized with serotonin in a few axons of the deep dorsal horn and in the gray matter around the central canal [24].
  • Moreover, hypoxia-induced increases in TH and GAL mRNA levels in the LC were not observed in nicotine-treated pups [4].

Physical interactions of Gal


Co-localisations of Gal


Regulatory relationships of Gal


Other interactions of Gal

  • Adult GalR2-MUT animals also have a one third reduction in neurite outgrowth from cultured DRG neurons that cannot be rescued by either galanin or a high-affinity GalR2/3 agonist [22].
  • Estradiol induces galanin gene expression in the pituitary of the mouse in an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent manner [19].
  • Previously, we demonstrated that GALR1 mRNA expression was increased in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and discrete hypothalamic nuclei in galanin transgenic (GAL-tg) mice [33].
  • Somatostatin antibody injected i.v. increased acid secretion by 3.5-fold over basal levels but did not modify the antisecretory effects of galanin [28].
  • Urethane-anesthetized SSTR2 knockout mice had a basal secretion 14-fold higher than wild-type animals, that was inhibited by galanin (10 and 20 microg/kg/h) by 49 and 31% respectively [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gal


  1. Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus. Elliott-Hunt, C.R., Marsh, B., Bacon, A., Pope, R., Vanderplank, P., Wynick, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Obesity and endocrine dysfunction in mice with deletions of both neuropeptide Y and galanin. Hohmann, J.G., Teklemichael, D.N., Weinshenker, D., Wynick, D., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Sensory neuronal phenotype in galanin receptor 2 knockout mice: focus on dorsal root ganglion neurone development and pain behaviour. Shi, T.J., Hua, X.Y., Lu, X., Malkmus, S., Kinney, J., Holmberg, K., Wirz, S., Ceccatelli, S., Yaksh, T., Bartfai, T., Hökfelt, T. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Perinatal nicotine attenuates the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and galanin mRNA in locus ceruleus of the newborn mouse. Wickström, H.R., Mas, C., Simonneau, M., Holgert, H., Hökfelt, T., Lagercrantz, H. Pediatr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Galanin impairs performance on learning and memory tasks: findings from galanin transgenic and GAL-R1 knockout mice. Rustay, N.R., Wrenn, C.C., Kinney, J.W., Holmes, A., Bailey, K.R., Sullivan, T.L., Harris, A.P., Long, K.C., Saavedra, M.C., Starosta, G., Innerfield, C.E., Yang, R.J., Dreiling, J.L., Crawley, J.N. Neuropeptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Upregulation of galanin binding sites and GalR1 mRNA levels in the mouse locus coeruleus following chronic morphine treatments and precipitated morphine withdrawal. Zachariou, V., Thome, J., Parikh, K., Picciotto, M.R. Neuropsychopharmacology (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Behavioural characterisation of young adult transgenic mice overexpressing galanin under the PDGF-B promoter. Kuteeva, E., Hökfelt, T., Ogren, S.O. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Behavioral and neurochemical studies on brain aging in galanin overexpressing mice. Pirondi, S., Kuteeva, E., Giardino, L., Ferraro, L., Antonelli, T., Bartfai, T., Ogren, S.O., Hökfelt, T., Calzà, L. Neuropeptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Galanin-1 receptor up-regulation mediates the excess colonic fluid production caused by infection with enteric pathogens. Matkowskyj, K.A., Danilkovich, A., Marrero, J., Savkovic, S.D., Hecht, G., Benya, R.V. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. A role for melanin-concentrating hormone in the central regulation of feeding behaviour. Qu, D., Ludwig, D.S., Gammeltoft, S., Piper, M., Pelleymounter, M.A., Cullen, M.J., Mathes, W.F., Przypek, R., Kanarek, R., Maratos-Flier, E. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Enzymatic remodelling of the carbohydrate surface of a xenogenic cell substantially reduces human antibody binding and complement-mediated cytolysis. Sandrin, M.S., Fodor, W.L., Mouhtouris, E., Osman, N., Cohney, S., Rollins, S.A., Guilmette, E.R., Setter, E., Squinto, S.P., McKenzie, I.F. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation by adrenaline of a low-conductance G protein-dependent K+ channel in mouse pancreatic B cells. Rorsman, P., Bokvist, K., Ammälä, C., Arkhammar, P., Berggren, P.O., Larsson, O., Wåhlander, K. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Glycolipid antigen processing for presentation by CD1d molecules. Prigozy, T.I., Naidenko, O., Qasba, P., Elewaut, D., Brossay, L., Khurana, A., Natori, T., Koezuka, Y., Kulkarni, A., Kronenberg, M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Galanin regulates prolactin release and lactotroph proliferation. Wynick, D., Small, C.J., Bacon, A., Holmes, F.E., Norman, M., Ormandy, C.J., Kilic, E., Kerr, N.C., Ghatei, M., Talamantes, F., Bloom, S.R., Pachnis, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Suppression of insulin release by galanin and somatostatin is mediated by a G-protein. An effect involving repolarization and reduction in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration. Nilsson, T., Arkhammar, P., Rorsman, P., Berggren, P.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. The mouse GalR2 galanin receptor: genomic organization, cDNA cloning, and functional characterization. Pang, L., Hashemi, T., Lee, H.J., Maguire, M., Graziano, M.P., Bayne, M., Hawes, B., Wong, G., Wang, S. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Galanin contributes to the excess colonic fluid secretion observed in dextran sulfate sodium murine colitis. Matkowskyj, K.A., Nathaniel, R., Prasad, R., Weihrauch, D., Rao, M., Benya, R.V. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Analysis of the contribution of galanin receptors 1 and 2 to the central actions of galanin-like peptide. Krasnow, S.M., Hohmann, J.G., Gragerov, A., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Neuroendocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Estradiol induces galanin gene expression in the pituitary of the mouse in an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent manner. Shen, E.S., Hardenburg, J.L., Meade, E.H., Arey, B.J., Merchenthaler, I., López, F.J. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. The neuropeptide galanin modulates behavioral and neurochemical signs of opiate withdrawal. Zachariou, V., Brunzell, D.H., Hawes, J., Stedman, D.R., Bartfai, T., Steiner, R.A., Wynick, D., Langel, U., Picciotto, M.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Suppressed kindling epileptogenesis in mice with ectopic overexpression of galanin. Kokaia, M., Holmberg, K., Nanobashvili, A., Xu, Z.Q., Kokaia, Z., Lendahl, U., Hilke, S., Theodorsson, E., Kahl, U., Bartfai, T., Lindvall, O., Hökfelt, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Mice deficient for galanin receptor 2 have decreased neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons and impaired pain-like behaviour. Hobson, S.A., Holmes, F.E., Kerr, N.C., Pope, R.J., Wynick, D. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Neurokinin A and galanin in the thyroid gland: neuronal localization. Grunditz, T., Hakanson, R., Sundler, F., Uddman, R. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. A confocal microscopic survey of serotoninergic axons in the lumbar spinal cord of the rat: co-localization with glutamate decarboxylase and neuropeptides. Maxwell, L., Maxwell, D.J., Neilson, M., Kerr, R. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of galanin receptor 1 and galanin receptor 2 activation in synaptic plasticity associated with 3',5'-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus: studies with a galanin receptor 2 agonist and galanin receptor 1 knockout mice. Badie-Mahdavi, H., Lu, X., Behrens, M.M., Bartfai, T. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Galanin attenuates cyclic AMP regulatory element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation induced by chronic morphine and naloxone challenge in Cath.a cells and primary striatal cultures. Hawes, J.J., Narasimhaiah, R., Picciotto, M.R. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Galanin regulates the postnatal survival of a subset of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. O'Meara, G., Coumis, U., Ma, S.Y., Kehr, J., Mahoney, S., Bacon, A., Allen, S.J., Holmes, F., Kahl, U., Wang, F.H., Kearns, I.R., Ove-Ogren, S., Dawbarn, D., Mufson, E.J., Davies, C., Dawson, G., Wynick, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Galanin inhibits gastric acid secretion through a somatostatin-independent mechanism in mice. Piqueras, L., Taché, Y., Martinez, V. Peptides (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of galanin immunoreactivity in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in mice: a confocal microscopic study. Rajendren, G., Gibson, M.J. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Phenotyping of sensory and sympathetic ganglion neurons of a galanin-overexpressing mouse--possible implications for pain processing. Brumovsky, P., Hygge-Blakeman, K., Villar, M.J., Watanabe, M., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z., Hökfelt, T. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of functional estrogen receptors and galanin messenger ribonucleic acid in immortalized luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons: estrogenic control of galanin gene expression. Shen, E.S., Meade, E.H., Pérez, M.C., Deecher, D.C., Negro-Vilar, A., López, F.J. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Galanin down-regulates microglial tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by a post-transcriptional mechanism. Su, Y., Ganea, D., Peng, X., Jonakait, G.M. J. Neuroimmunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Ectopic galanin expression and normal galanin receptor 2 and galanin receptor 3 mRNA levels in the forebrain of galanin transgenic mice. He, B., Counts, S.E., Perez, S.E., Hohmann, J.G., Koprich, J.B., Lipton, J.W., Steiner, R.A., Crawley, J.N., Mufson, E.J. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of peripheral nerve lesion and lumbar sympathectomy on peptide regulation in dorsal root ganglia in the NGF-overexpressing mouse. Holmberg, K., Shi, T.J., Albers, K.M., Davis, B.M., Hökfelt, T. Exp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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