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Gene Review

GSTZ1  -  glutathione S-transferase zeta 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GSTZ1-1, Glutathione S-transferase zeta 1, MAAI, MAI, Maleylacetoacetate isomerase
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Disease relevance of GSTZ1


High impact information on GSTZ1


Chemical compound and disease context of GSTZ1


Biological context of GSTZ1


Anatomical context of GSTZ1

  • The minor FSD component (FSD2) is due to the GSTZ1 present in rat liver cytosol [11].
  • Prediction of disease outcome with a linear combination of quantitative microscopical parameters of the primary tumor alone [MAI (mitotic activity index), DI and mean nuclear area] was very accurate, even without considering lymph-node status (MC 30.8, p less than 0.0005) [12].
  • Pulmonary artery thrombosis and an anti-ethinyl-oestradiol monoclonal IgGlambda were found to be associated in a 36-year-old woman (Mrs MAI.) who took an oral contraceptive containing 50 mug ethinyl-oestradiol and 500 mug nor-ethisterone daily [13].
  • The removal of erythrocyte sialic acid using neuraminidase to reduce surface negative charge led to unequivocal interference with aggregation (MAI technique of CHIEN et al., J. Gen. Physiol., 1973) by both anionic amphophiles were studied [14].
  • At 3 MAI, glomerular lesions were characterized by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis showing segmental expansion of the mesangial area due to an increase of basement membrane-like material and mesangial cells with lipid droplets and foam cells [15].

Associations of GSTZ1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of GSTZ1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GSTZ1

  • Immunoblotting showed the presence of GSTZ in mouse, rat, and human liver cytosol [20].
  • Recurrence-free survival was related independently to nuclear perimetry (P less than 0.001), SD of nuclear area (P = 0.01) and MAI (P = 0.019) in Cox's analysis [21].
  • Axillary lymph node-negative (pN-) breast carcinomas (n = 281) were analysed histoquantitatively for two mitotic indexes (MAI, mitotic activity index; M/V, volume corrected mitotic index) and nine nuclear factors with special emphasis on disclosing prognostic factors during a follow-up of 12 years [21].
  • The sequence analysis of genomic DNA for zeta class GST (GSTZ) locus in rice indicated that two homologous GSTZ genes lay in a tandem orientation with a short (0.4 kb) intergenic spacer [22].
  • The reactivities of MAAI with HDL, ssDNA and dsDNA, phospholipids such as cardiolipin (CL), and coagulation factors were examined by ELISA [23].


  1. Investigation of glutathione S-transferase zeta and the development of sporadic breast cancer. Smith, R.A., Curran, J.E., Weinstein, S.R., Griffiths, L.R. Breast Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Polymorphisms in the human glutathione transferase zeta promoter. Fang, Y.Y., Kashkarov, U., Anders, M.W., Board, P.G. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of a fungal maleylacetoacetate isomerase gene and identification of its human homologue. Fernández-Cañón, J.M., Peñalva, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Evolution of a metabolic pathway for degradation of a toxic xenobiotic: the patchwork approach. Copley, S.D. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytomegalovirus encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Holland, N.R., Power, C., Mathews, V.P., Glass, J.D., Forman, M., McArthur, J.C. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibition and recovery of rat hepatic glutathione S-transferase zeta and alteration of tyrosine metabolism following dichloroacetate exposure and withdrawal. Guo, X., Dixit, V., Liu, H., Shroads, A.L., Henderson, G.N., James, M.O., Stacpoole, P.W. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase zeta and tyrosine metabolism by dichloroacetate: a potential unifying mechanism for its altered biotransformation and toxicity. Cornett, R., James, M.O., Henderson, G.N., Cheung, J., Shroads, A.L., Stacpoole, P.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhanced isolation of MOTT on egg media of low pH. Katila, M.L., Mattila, J. APMIS (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. GSTZ1d: a new allele of glutathione transferase zeta and maleylacetoacetate isomerase. Blackburn, A.C., Coggan, M., Tzeng, H.F., Lantum, H., Polekhina, G., Parker, M.W., Anders, M.W., Board, P.G. Pharmacogenetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization and chromosome location of the gene GSTZ1 encoding the human Zeta class glutathione transferase and maleylacetoacetate isomerase. Blackburn, A.C., Woollatt, E., Sutherland, G.R., Board, P.G. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of the fluoroacetate detoxication enzymes of rat liver cytosol. Tu, L.Q., Chen, Y.Y., Wright, P.F., Rix, C.J., Bolton-Grob, R., Ahokas, J.T. Xenobiotica (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Further evaluation of the prognostic value of morphometric and flow cytometric parameters in breast-cancer patients with long follow-up. Uyterlinde, A.M., Baak, J.P., Schipper, N.W., Peterse, H., Matze, E., Meijer, C.J. Int. J. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Oral contraceptive, pulmonary artery thrombosis and anti-ethinyl-oestradiol monoclonal IgG. Beaumont, J.L., Lemort, N. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of anionic amphophiles on erythrocyte properties. McMillan, D.E., Utterback, N.G., Wujek, J.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Rapid induction of glomerular lipidosis in APA hamsters by streptozotocin. Han, J.S., Sugawara, Y., Doi, K. International journal of experimental pathology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Discovery of a functional polymorphism in human glutathione transferase zeta by expressed sequence tag database analysis. Blackburn, A.C., Tzeng, H.F., Anders, M.W., Board, P.G. Pharmacogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Is fluoroacetate-specific defluorinase a glutathione S-transferase? Tu, L.Q., Wright, P.F., Rix, C.J., Ahokas, J.T. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystal structure of maleylacetoacetate isomerase/glutathione transferase zeta reveals the molecular basis for its remarkable catalytic promiscuity. Polekhina, G., Board, P.G., Blackburn, A.C., Parker, M.W. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Zeta, a novel class of glutathione transferases in a range of species from plants to humans. Board, P.G., Baker, R.T., Chelvanayagam, G., Jermiin, L.S. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Glutathione transferase zeta-catalyzed biotransformation of dichloroacetic acid and other alpha-haloacids. Tong, Z., Board, P.G., Anders, M.W. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Prognostic factors in axillary lymph node-negative (pN-) breast carcinomas. Aaltomaa, S., Lipponen, P., Eskelinen, M., Kosma, V.M., Marin, S., Alhava, E., Syrjänen, K. Eur. J. Cancer (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Genomic structure and differential expression of two tandem-arranged GSTZ genes in rice. Tsuchiya, T., Takesawa, T., Kanzaki, H., Nakamura, I. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Anti-apolipoprotein A-I autoantibody: characterization of monoclonal autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Abe, H., Tsuboi, N., Suzuki, S., Sakuraba, H., Takanashi, H., Tahara, K., Tonozuka, N., Hayashi, T., Umeda, M. J. Rheumatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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