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Gene Review

th  -  tyrosine hydroxylase

Danio rerio

Synonyms: SO:0000704
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High impact information on th

  • Overexpression of ngn1 is also sufficient to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression in addition to the pan-neuronal marker Hu in nonneural ectoderm [1].
  • They often show HuC/D immunoreactivity but importantly also more specific neuronal identities as indicated by immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and parvalbumin [2].
  • In the sonic hedgehog (shh) mutant, cells positive for tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for putative NAergic cells in the LC were reduced [3].
  • The catecholaminergic cell clusters suggested to correspond to the mammalian nigrostriatal cell group displayed normal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity after the toxin treatment and did not show signs of DNA fragmentation that would indicate activation of cascades that lead to cell death [4].
  • In relation to dopaminergic neurons in the diencephalic posterior tuberculum (considered to be the teleostean homologue of the mammalian midbrain dopaminergic system), both cb1 and tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing cells occupy non-overlapping domains [5].

Biological context of th

  • Preservation of two apparently functional TH genes in phylogenetically distant teleost species is consistent with the notion of partitioning of function between duplicate genes [6].
  • The TH2 gene is also present in the genomes of the pufferfish Takifugu and zebrafish Danio [6].
  • We report the finding of two non-allelic genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the diploid teleost barramundi Lates calcarifer [6].
  • Differential regulation of the two TH genes is, however, indicated by differences in transcript distribution, the nature of the Ca2+-responsive elements found in the proximal promoter region and the lack of recognised phosphorylation sites in TH2 [6].

Anatomical context of th


Associations of th with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of th


  1. Neurogenin1 is a determinant of zebrafish basal forebrain dopaminergic neurons and is regulated by the conserved zinc finger protein Tof/Fezl. Jeong, J.Y., Einhorn, Z., Mercurio, S., Lee, S., Lau, B., Mione, M., Wilson, S.W., Guo, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish brain: origin, proliferation dynamics, migration and cell fate. Grandel, H., Kaslin, J., Ganz, J., Wenzel, I., Brand, M. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. SHH and FGF8 play distinct roles during development of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus of the zebrafish. Lam, C.S., Sleptsova-Friedrich, I., Munro, A.D., Korzh, V. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Neurochemical and behavioural changes in zebrafish Danio rerio after systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Anichtchik, O.V., Kaslin, J., Peitsaro, N., Scheinin, M., Panula, P. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 in the CNS of zebrafish. Lam, C.S., Rastegar, S., Strähle, U. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Two tyrosine hydroxylase genes in teleosts. Candy, J., Collet, C. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Dopamine transporter expression distinguishes dopaminergic neurons from other catecholaminergic neurons in the developing zebrafish embryo. Holzschuh, J., Ryu, S., Aberger, F., Driever, W. Mech. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Relationship of tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactivity to sensorimotor circuitry in larval zebrafish. McLean, D.L., Fetcho, J.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A role for norepinephrine in the regulation of context-dependent ZENK expression in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Castelino, C.B., Ball, G.F. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Calretinin immunoreactivity in the brain of the zebrafish, Danio rerio: distribution and comparison with some neuropeptides and neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes. II. Midbrain, hindbrain, and rostral spinal cord. Castro, A., Becerra, M., Manso, M.J., Anadón, R. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Odor-stimulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in the zebrafish olfactory bulb. Edwards, J.G., Michel, W.C. J. Comp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative anatomy of the histaminergic and other aminergic systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Kaslin, J., Panula, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Temporal and spatial organization of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell groups in the embryonic brain of an elasmobranch, the lesser-spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Carrera, I., Sueiro, C., Molist, P., Ferreiro, S., Adrio, F., Rodríguez, M.A., Anadón, R., Rodríguez-Moldes, I. Brain Res. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
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