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Gene Review

TH  -  tyrosine hydroxylase

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of TH

  • To determine whether the proportion of CG neurons expressing TH or PNMT is increased by tissue influences, ganglion cells were co-cultured with notochord [1].
  • The enhanced expression may require specific sequences in the TH promoter fragment because replacing this fragment with a similar sized fragment of bacteriophage lambda DNA did not enhance expression [2].

Psychiatry related information on TH

  • When growth hormone (GH, 100 ng/50 microliters) was administered during the same critical period (day 3) no difference was observed in TH activity as compared to controls [3].

High impact information on TH


Chemical compound and disease context of TH


Biological context of TH

  • High TH mRNA levels are maintained during later embryonic development (stage 35) in both sympathetic ganglia and adrenal chromaffin cells [11].
  • Since these populations of TH-positive cells appear to only partially express the catecholaminergic phenotype, these cells may provide a model in which factors regulating the expression of neurotransmitter phenotypes can be examined in neurons of the developing CNS [12].
  • These results suggest that KN-93 inhibits DA formation by modulating the reaction rate of TH to reduce the Ca(2+)-mediated phosphorylation levels of the TH molecule [13].
  • A MspI RFLP at the chicken tyrosine hydroxylase locus (TH) [14].
  • Thereafter, the cell density as well as total cell number gradually declined and reached a plateau around embryonic day 20 when tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive cells, like those in the mature retina, showed an even distribution throughout the retina.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[15]

Anatomical context of TH


Associations of TH with chemical compounds

  • Double-labeling experiments using a monoclonal antibody to Glu in conjunction with polyclonal antibodies to either neurofilament (NF), substance P (SP), or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) revealed that: (1) the Glu-immunoreactive cells are a subpopulation of NF-positive sensory neuroblasts; (2) intensely Glu-immunoreactive cells were usually SP-negative [19].
  • By double labelling, CTb-IR neurons containing TH or mENK were observed in the rectal INR after the rectal injection [20].
  • No additive effect was observed in TH activity following co-administration of ethanol and GH-RH [21].
  • The adrenergic structures were visualised with glyoxylic acid and with immunohistochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the marker for adrenergic nerve structures [22].
  • Retinas were also examined using histofluorescence for dopamine histochemistry, for AChE, and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CAT, tyrosine hydroxylase, GABA, 5-HT, Leu-enkephalin, and somatostatin [23].

Other interactions of TH

  • The chicken LSO complex was characterized chemoarchitectonically from embryonic to posthatching stages, by using immunohistochemistry for calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase, NKX2.1, and BEN proteins and in situ hybridization for Nkx2.1, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Shh, and Dlx5 mRNA [24].
  • Thus, a subset of mesencephalic neural crest cells fails to express dHAND or TH in the sympathetic ganglia, while a further subset initiates but fails to maintain TH expression [16].
  • Only in some TH-positive neurones was NPY and/or NOS found [25].
  • 4. The TH-containing cells in the chick cord do not appear to contain the catecholamine biosynthesis enzymes, DBH or PNMT [26].
  • Some myocardial expression, not related with initial nerve ingrowth, using Snap25, TH, HNK-1, DO170, and RMO270 was confined to regions of the ventricular conduction system [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TH

  • A few hours earlier (stage 18), TH mRNA could be found by in situ hybridization [11].
  • In 90% of the co-culture experiments, most neurons present in the culture dishes stained with TH or PNMT after 5 days in vitro [1].
  • Such TH-positive PCNs disappear after sympathectomy [17].
  • TH-and mENK-immunonegative neurons were restricted to the rostral part of rectal INR and the more rostral level [20].
  • However, cells less intensely staining with both antibodies were observed as well; (3) the Glu-immunoreactive cells were TH-negative, whereas TH-positive adrenergic neuroblasts were Glu-negative; and (4) frozen sections of the spinal ganglia of 9- and 15-day-old quail embryos contained Glu-immunoreactive cells [19].


  1. Cholinergic neurons of the chick ciliary ganglia express adrenergic traits in vivo and in vitro. Teitelman, G., Joh, T.H., Grayson, L., Park, D.H., Reis, D.J., Iacovitti, L. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. A tyrosine hydroxylase-neurofilament chimeric promoter enhances long-term expression in rat forebrain neurons from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors. Zhang, G.R., Wang, X., Yang, T., Sun, M., Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Geller, A.I. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone influences neuronal expression in the developing chick brain. I. Catecholaminergic neurons. Kentroti, S., Vernadakis, A. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Differentiation of catecholaminergic cells in cultures of embryonic avian sensory ganglia. Xue, Z.G., Smith, J., Le Douarin, N.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. The specification of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurones depends on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Vogel-Höpker, A., Rohrer, H. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential regulation of transcription factor gene expression and phenotypic markers in developing sympathetic neurons. Groves, A.K., George, K.M., Tissier-Seta, J.P., Engel, J.D., Brunet, J.F., Anderson, D.J. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Developmental potential of neural crest-derived cells migrating from segments of developing quail bowel back-grafted into younger chick host embryos. Rothman, T.P., Le Douarin, N.M., Fontaine-Pérus, J.C., Gershon, M.D. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Selective expression of high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors on tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neuron-like cells in neural crest cultures. Bernd, P. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Coexpression of sensory and autonomic neurotransmitter traits by avian neural crest cells in vitro. Leblanc, G.G. J. Neurobiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Synaptogenesis in chick paravertebral sympathetic ganglia: a morphometric analysis. Hruschak, K.A., Friedrich, V.L., Giacobini, E. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and the transcription factors cPhox-2 and Cash-1: evidence for distinct inductive steps in the differentiation of chick sympathetic precursor cells. Ernsberger, U., Patzke, H., Tissier-Seta, J.P., Reh, T., Goridis, C., Rohrer, H. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Two populations of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells occur in the spinal cord of the chick embryo and hatchling. Wallace, J.A., Mondragon, R.M., Allgood, P.C., Hoffman, T.J., Maez, R.R. Neurosci. Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The newly synthesized selective Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN-93 reduces dopamine contents in PC12h cells. Sumi, M., Kiuchi, K., Ishikawa, T., Ishii, A., Hagiwara, M., Nagatsu, T., Hidaka, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. A MspI RFLP at the chicken tyrosine hydroxylase locus (TH). Thorp, A.J., Morrice, D.R., Burt, D.W. Anim. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Development of tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactive structures in the chick retina: three-dimensional analysis. Kagami, H., Sakai, H., Uryu, K., Kaneda, T., Sakanaka, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Restricted response of mesencephalic neural crest to sympathetic differentiation signals in the trunk. Lee, V.M., Bronner-Fraser, M., Baker, C.V. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Phylogenetic investigation of Dogiel's pericellular nests and Cajal's initial glomeruli in the dorsal root ganglion. Matsuda, S., Kobayashi, N., Terashita, T., Shimokawa, T., Shigemoto, K., Mominoki, K., Wakisaka, H., Saito, S., Miyawaki, K., Saito, K., Kushihata, F., Chen, J., Gao, S.Y., Li, C.Y., Wang, M., Fujiwara, T. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Localization of dopamine D1 receptors and dopaminoceptive neurons in the chick forebrain. Schnabel, R., Metzger, M., Jiang, S., Hemmings, H.C., Greengard, P., Braun, K. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Glutamate-immunoreactive sensory neurons in quail neural crest cell culture. Rachel, R.A., Sieber-Blum, M. Brain Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Projections of neurons in the intestinal nerve of Remak to the chicken intestine. Suzuki, M., Ohmori, Y., Watanabe, T. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Neuronal plasticity in the developing chick brain: interaction of ethanol and neuropeptides. Kentroti, S., Vernadakis, A. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. The adrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the thyroid chicken gland. Baryła, J., Greniuk, G., Lakomy, M. Folia morphologica. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. The toxic effects of ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion on cholinergic cells in the chicken retina. Millar, T.J., Ishimoto, I., Boelen, M., Epstein, M.L., Johnson, C.D., Morgan, I.G. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Chicken lateral septal organ and other circumventricular organs form in a striatal subdomain abutting the molecular striatopallidal border. Bardet, S.M., Cobos, I., Puelles, E., Mart??nez-De-La-Torre, M., Puelles, L. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Neuronal subpopulations in autonomic ganglia associated with the chicken ureter: an immunohistochemical study. Sann, H. Cell Tissue Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons in the spinal cord of the chicken. I. Development and analysis of catecholamine synthesis capabilities. Wallace, J.A., Romero, A.A., Gabaldon, A.M., Roe, V.A., Saavedra, S.L., Lobner, J. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Distribution of antigen epitopes shared by nerves and the myocardium of the embryonic chick heart using different neuronal markers. Verberne, M.E., Gittenberger-De Groot, A.C., Poelmann, R.E. Anat. Rec. (2000) [Pubmed]
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