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Gene Review

alphaTub85E  -  alpha-Tubulin at 85E

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 2t, ALPHA 85E, CG9476, DTA3, Dmel\CG9476, ...
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Disease relevance of alphaTub85E

  • Absence of detectable acetylated alpha-tubulin prior to cellular blastoderm seems to be due to rapid turnover of microtubule arrays rather than to lack of the enzyme required for modification, since acetylated alpha-tubulin appeared in early embryos when micro-tubules were stabilized by taxol treatment or anoxia [1].
  • Pertussis toxin pretreatment of cells eliminated alpha 2-receptor-mediated attenuation of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels and enhanced the receptor density-dependent potentiation of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP concentrations from 3 to 8-fold [2].

High impact information on alphaTub85E

  • All of the transcripts are found on polysomes and are long enough to encode an alpha-tubulin protein [3].
  • In a/alpha diploid cells, alpha 2 acts with a1, a product of the other MAT allele, to repress a different set of genes, the haploid-specific genes [4].
  • Different basement membranes, however, possess different members of the basic basal lamina families, such as the newly described alpha 6 (IV) collagen, alpha 2 (merosin) laminin, and beta 3 laminin (in kalinin/nicein) chains [5].
  • An investigation of microtubule organization and functions in living Drosophila embryos by injection of a fluorescently labeled antibody against tyrosinated alpha-tubulin [6].
  • Identification of an acetylation site of Chlamydomonas alpha-tubulin [7].

Biological context of alphaTub85E

  • We tested the ability of the developmentally regulated alpha 85E-tubulin isoform to replace alpha 84B in spermatogenesis [8].
  • The developmental pattern of gene expression of the Drosophila melanogaster alpha-tubulin family has been examined in detail at both the mRNA and protein levels [9].
  • The cell types that express alpha 85E share a requirement for extensive cell shape changes during development, suggesting that this minor alpha-tubulin may have distinct functional properties [10].
  • Although acetylated and nonacetylated alpha-tubulin are present in roughly equal amounts by the late stages of embryogenesis, acetylated alpha-tubulin is partitioned into the pellet during centrifugation of extracts of embryos homogenized at 4 degrees C [1].
  • After the onset of gastrulation, interphase microtubule arrays in most cell types contain acetylated alpha-tubulin [1].

Anatomical context of alphaTub85E

  • We conclude that if alpha 85E and beta 3 have specialized properties required for their normal functions, they act independently to modulate the properties of microtubules into which they are incorporated [8].
  • Axonemal defects caused by alpha 85E are precisely reciprocal to dominant defects in doublet microtubules we observed in a previous study of ectopic germ-line expression of the developmentally regulated beta 3-tubulin isoform [8].
  • In adults, alpha 85E mRNA has been unequivocally identified only in testes [10].
  • Specifically, embryonic accumulation of alpha 85E tubulin is limited to support cells of chordotonal organs and the developing musculature of the viscera and body wall [10].
  • Functional implications of the unusual spatial distribution of a minor alpha-tubulin isotype in Drosophila: a common thread among chordotonal ligaments, developing muscle, and testis cyst cells [10].

Associations of alphaTub85E with chemical compounds

  • In addition, alpha 2 of H1, with a short leucine zipper in it, may be capable of protein-protein interaction in a similar manner to the other homeodomains [11].
  • The role of the alpha 2-receptor in modulating intracellular cyclic AMP concentrations was investigated in three transfected cell lines expressing 50, 200, and 1200 fmol of receptor/mg membrane protein [2].
  • Agonists displayed a rank order of potency in radioligand binding assays of para-aminoclonidine greater than or equal to UK-14304 greater than (-)-epinephrine greater than (-)-norepinephrine greater than (-)-isoproterenol, consistent with the identification of this protein as an alpha 2-receptor [2].
  • The alpha 2-receptor expressed in CHO cells displayed pharmacology characteristic of an alpha 2 A-receptor subtype with a high affinity for yohimbine (Ki = 1 nM) and a low affinity for prazosin (Ki = 10,000 nM) [2].

Other interactions of alphaTub85E


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of alphaTub85E

  • Immunofluorescence staining of Drosophila embryos with a monoclonal antibody specific for acetylated alpha-tubulin has revealed that acetylated and nonacetylated alpha-tubulin isoforms have different patterns of distribution during early development [1].
  • We describe here, molecular cloning of the alpha-2 tubulin gene, located on chromosome I, that encodes a protein of 449 amino acids that has high homology to human, mouse and Drosophila alpha tubulins, but relatively lower homology to the yeast alpha tubulins [14].
  • These findings prove that immunocytochemistry against acetylated alpha-tubulin and synapsin are valuable tools for studying the development of the crustacean nervous system [15].


  1. Temporal and spatial pattern of differences in microtubule behaviour during Drosophila embryogenesis revealed by distribution of a tubulin isoform. Wolf, N., Regan, C.L., Fuller, M.T. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning, sequence analysis, and permanent expression of a human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Evidence for independent pathways of receptor coupling to adenylate cyclase attenuation and activation. Fraser, C.M., Arakawa, S., McCombie, W.R., Venter, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental regulation of Drosophila alpha-tubulin genes. Kalfayan, L., Wensink, P.C. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Binding of yeast a1 and alpha 2 as a heterodimer to the operator DNA of a haploid-specific gene. Dranginis, A.M. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Basal lamina assembly. Yurchenco, P.D., O'Rear, J.J. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. An investigation of microtubule organization and functions in living Drosophila embryos by injection of a fluorescently labeled antibody against tyrosinated alpha-tubulin. Warn, R.M., Flegg, L., Warn, A. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of an acetylation site of Chlamydomonas alpha-tubulin. LeDizet, M., Piperno, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Structurally similar Drosophila alpha-tubulins are functionally distinct in vivo. Hutchens, J.A., Hoyle, H.D., Turner, F.R., Raff, E.C. Mol. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Developmental distribution of RNA and protein products of the Drosophila alpha-tubulin gene family. Matthews, K.A., Miller, D.F., Kaufman, T.C. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional implications of the unusual spatial distribution of a minor alpha-tubulin isotype in Drosophila: a common thread among chordotonal ligaments, developing muscle, and testis cyst cells. Matthews, K.A., Miller, D.F., Kaufman, T.C. Dev. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. A DNA-binding homeodomain in histone H1. Mannermaa, R.M., Oikarinen, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Tissue-specific and constitutive alpha-tubulin genes of Drosophila melanogaster code for structurally distinct proteins. Theurkauf, W.E., Baum, H., Bo, J., Wensink, P.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The promoter region of the Drosophila alpha 2-tubulin gene directs testicular and neural specific expression. Bo, J., Wensink, P.C. Development (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular cloning and developmental expression of the alpha-2 tubulin gene of Caenorhabditis elegans. Fukushige, T., Yasuda, H., Siddiqui, S.S. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunocytochemical detection of acetylated alpha-tubulin and Drosophila synapsin in the embryonic crustacean nervous system. Harzsch, S., Anger, K., Dawirs, R.R. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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