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Chemical Compound Review

Calixine     2,6-dimethyl-4-tridecyl- morpholine

Synonyms: Calixin, Kalinin, Kalixin, Tridemorf, Tridemorph, ...
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Disease relevance of Kalixin


High impact information on Kalixin


Chemical compound and disease context of Kalixin


Biological context of Kalixin


Anatomical context of Kalixin

  • We have linked Herlitz's junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB) to the gene (LAMC2) encoding the gamma 2 subunit of nicein/kalinin, an isolaminin (laminin-5) expressed by basal keratinocytes [1].
  • Altogether, these results suggest that kalinin may fulfill additional functions than laminin, particularly for epithelial cells [3].
  • Kalinin promoted adhesion of a large number of normal cells and established cell lines with an activity similar to other adhesion molecules such as the laminin-nidogen complex, fibronectin, or collagen IV [3].
  • The immunoreactivity for laminin alpha 2 chain localized to the BMs of glands and the lower parts of the gastric pits whereas the laminin alpha 3 chain (laminin-5/kalinin) immunoreactivity was strictly confined to BMs underneath the surface epithelium and the upper parts of the pits [16].
  • Formation of hemidesmosomes in cells of a transformed murine mammary tumor cell line and mechanisms involved in adherence of these cells to laminin and kalinin [17].

Associations of Kalixin with other chemical compounds

  • The integrin alpha 3 beta 1, which has been identified as a receptor for kalinin but not for laminin, is strongly expressed in RAC-11P/SD cells and it seems likely that this integrin is responsible for spreading of cells on kalinin [17].
  • The antibody efficiently blocked adhesion to laminin of cells treated with the microfilament disrupting drug cytochalasin B, but only partially blocked the adhesion of cytochalasin B-treated cells to kalinin, while adherence of cells treated with deoxyglucose and azide to kalinin was blocked completely [17].
  • Tests with a panel of fungicides indicated that pML100 conferred significant resistance only to compounds (Fp, tridemorph, fenpropidin and azasterol) which have a shared site of action, Erg24p [18].
  • The delta 8-->delta 7 sterol isomerase produced by the M. grisea ERG2 gene exhibited a level of sensitivity to the sterol biosynthesis inhibitor, tridemorph, similar to that of the enzyme derived from the U. maydis ERG2 gene [19].
  • The effects of tridemorph and vinclozolin were studied on different types of microorganisms, urea hydrolysis and nitrification in soil and in culture [11].

Gene context of Kalixin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Kalixin

  • Genes for the lamina lucida protein, kalinin/laminin 5, have been proposed as candidates for some forms of JEB, based on immunofluorescence analysis recognizing kalinin epitopes [2].
  • V8 protease analysis and Western blotting studies indicate that the variant 190-kD chain shows structural and immunological similarity to the 200-kD chain of kalinin [23].
  • The affinity-purified material was separated by SDS-PAGE into three bands of 165-155, 140, and 105 kD identical to those obtained from normal human keratinocyte cultures and previously identified as kalinin [3].
  • The alpha 3A transfected cells bound more strongly to kalinin and bovine kidney laminins after treatment with the beta 1 stimulatory antibody TS2/16 [24].
  • Laminin-5 (kalinin) was purified from spent cell culture media (SCC25 cells) by affinity chromatography on monoclonal antibody BM165 [25].


  1. Herlitz's junctional epidermolysis bullosa is linked to mutations in the gene (LAMC2) for the gamma 2 subunit of nicein/kalinin (LAMININ-5). Aberdam, D., Galliano, M.F., Vailly, J., Pulkkinen, L., Bonifas, J., Christiano, A.M., Tryggvason, K., Uitto, J., Epstein, E.H., Ortonne, J.P. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutations in the gamma 2 chain gene (LAMC2) of kalinin/laminin 5 in the junctional forms of epidermolysis bullosa. Pulkkinen, L., Christiano, A.M., Airenne, T., Haakana, H., Tryggvason, K., Uitto, J. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Kalinin is more efficient than laminin in promoting adhesion of primary keratinocytes and some other epithelial cells and has a different requirement for integrin receptors. Rousselle, P., Aumailley, M. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Destruction of the epithelial anchoring system in lichen planus. Haapalainen, T., Oksala, O., Kallioinen, M., Oikarinen, A., Larjava, H., Salo, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Anti-basement membrane autoantibodies in patients with anti-epiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid bind the alpha subunit of laminin 5. Kirtschig, G., Marinkovich, M.P., Burgeson, R.E., Yancey, K.B. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Basal lamina assembly. Yurchenco, P.D., O'Rear, J.J. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa keratinocytes display heterogeneous defects of nicein/kalinin gene expression. Baudoin, C., Miquel, C., Blanchet-Bardon, C., Gambini, C., Meneguzzi, G., Ortonne, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Human amnion contains a novel laminin variant, laminin 7, which like laminin 6, covalently associates with laminin 5 to promote stable epithelial-stromal attachment. Champliaud, M.F., Lunstrum, G.P., Rousselle, P., Nishiyama, T., Keene, D.R., Burgeson, R.E. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. The mucin epiglycanin on TA3/Ha carcinoma cells prevents alpha 6 beta 4-mediated adhesion to laminin and kalinin and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell interaction. Kemperman, H., Wijnands, Y., Wesseling, J., Niessen, C.M., Sonnenberg, A., Roos, E. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Epiligrin is decreased in papulonodular basal cell carcinoma tumor nest basement membranes and the extracellular matrix of transformed human epithelial cells. Lazarova, Z., Domloge-Hultsch, N., Yancey, K.B. Exp. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of the fungicides tridemorph and vinclozolin on soil microorganisms and nitrogen metabolism. Banerjee, A., Banerjee, A.K. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of microbial cholesterol oxidases by dimethylmorpholines. Hesselink, P.G., Kerkenaar, A., Witholt, B. J. Steroid Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. alpha 3A beta 1 integrin localizes to focal contacts in response to diverse extracellular matrix proteins. DiPersio, C.M., Shah, S., Hynes, R.O. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. The genes for nicein/kalinin 125- and 100-kDa subunits, candidates for junctional epidermolysis bullosa, map to chromosomes 1q32 and 1q25-q31. Vailly, J., Szepetowski, P., Mattei, M.G., Pedeutour, F., Burgeson, R., Ortonne, J.P., Meneguzzi, G. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Mouse kalinin B1 (laminin beta 3 chain): cloning and tissue distribution. Utani, A., Kopp, J.B., Kozak, C.A., Matsuki, Y., Amizuka, N., Sugiyama, S., Yamada, Y. Lab. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential expression of laminin chains and their integrin receptors in human gastric mucosa. Virtanen, I., Tani, T., Bäck, N., Häppölä, O., Laitinen, L., Kiviluoto, T., Salo, J., Burgeson, R.E., Lehto, V.P., Kivilaakso, E. Am. J. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Formation of hemidesmosomes in cells of a transformed murine mammary tumor cell line and mechanisms involved in adherence of these cells to laminin and kalinin. Sonnenberg, A., de Melker, A.A., Martinez de Velasco, A.M., Janssen, H., Calafat, J., Niessen, C.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. The identification of a gene family in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Lai, M.H., Bard, M., Pierson, C.A., Alexander, J.F., Goebl, M., Carter, G.T., Kirsch, D.R. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Isolation of the ERG2 gene, encoding sterol delta 8-->delta 7 isomerase, from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and its expression in the maize smut pathogen Ustilago maydis. Keon, J.P., James, C.S., Court, S., Baden-Daintree, C., Bailey, A.M., Burden, R.S., Bard, M., Hargreaves, J.A. Curr. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. A mutation in sphingolipid synthesis suppresses defects in yeast ergosterol metabolism. Valachovic, M., Wilcox, L.I., Sturley, S.L., Bard, M. Lipids (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Cellular and molecular alterations in spinal cord injury patients with pressure ulcers: a preliminary report. Cruse, J.M., Wang, H., Lewis, R.E., Cespedes, J., Morrison, R.S., Lineaweaver, W.C., Dilioglou, S. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Marked stimulation of cell adhesion and motility by ladsin, a laminin-like scatter factor. Kikkawa, Y., Umeda, M., Miyazaki, K. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. The dermal-epidermal junction of human skin contains a novel laminin variant. Marinkovich, M.P., Lunstrum, G.P., Keene, D.R., Burgeson, R.E. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Distinct and overlapping ligand specificities of the alpha 3A beta 1 and alpha 6A beta 1 integrins: recognition of laminin isoforms. Delwel, G.O., de Melker, A.A., Hogervorst, F., Jaspars, L.H., Fles, D.L., Kuikman, I., Lindblom, A., Paulsson, M., Timpl, R., Sonnenberg, A. Mol. Biol. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Structural requirement for cell adhesion to kalinin (laminin-5). Rousselle, P., Golbik, R., van der Rest, M., Aumailley, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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