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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Femur

  • Weight loss correlated with trochanter BMD loss (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) in the WL NL-Ca group [1].
  • As for postmenopausal women (n = 269), body weight ( approximately 25% at various sites) and age (approximately 16% at femoral neck, trochanter, total hip and Ward's triangle sites) were the strongest predictors of BMD [2].
  • Human bone-derived cells obtained from the greater trochanter of the femur during total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis were cultured in the presence of 10 nmol/L dexamethasone and 100 mumol/L L-ascorbate-2-phosphate [3].
  • A tapered titanium femoral stem with circumferential plasma-spray porous coating provides excellent long-term fixation, durable clinical outcome, and protects against osteolysis below the level of the calcar and greater trochanter [4].
  • Streptomycin-loaded bone-cement (7 g of streptomycin in 40 g of bone cement) beads were used in the treatment of tuberculous bursitis and osteomyelitis of the greater trochanter in a 76-year-old woman [5].

Psychiatry related information on Femur


High impact information on Femur

  • At three years, the mean (+/- SE) differences in bone mineral density between the women receiving 10 mg of alendronate daily and those receiving placebo were 8.8 +/- 0.4 percent in the spine, 5.9 +/- 0.5 percent in the femoral neck, 7.8 +/- 0.6 percent in the trochanter, and 2.5 +/- 0.3 percent in the total body (P < 0.001 for all comparisons) [7].
  • In contrast, coadministration of hPTH-(1-34) increased BMD of the anterior-posterior spine by 2.1% (1.1%) (P=.09) and lateral spine by 7.5% (1.9%) (P=.002) and prevented bone loss from the femoral neck, trochanter, and total body, despite severe estrogen deficiency [8].
  • Women receiving the levothyroxine treatment had normal total body BMD levels but had significantly lower BMD levels at the femoral neck (-5.7%), femoral trochanter (-7.0%), Ward's triangle (-10.6%), both arms (right, -7.8%; left, -8.9%), and pelvis (-4.9%) [9].
  • RESULTS: After 1 year, the treatment effects for clodronate versus placebo in the lumbar spine, the total hip, and the trochanter, respectively, were as follows: +2.38% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-3.41), +0.74% (95% CI = -0.13 - 1.60), and +1.29% (95% CI = 0.24-2.34) [10].
  • Over the next 12 months, bone mineral density loss was greater in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with controls; significantly so for early disease (eg, -2.4 [0.8] vs -0.6 [0.4] g/cm2, p < 0.05 in the spine and -4.3 [0.8] vs -0.4 [0.5] g/cm2, p < 0.001 in the trochanter) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Femur


Biological context of Femur

  • In estrogen-deficient women with poor calcium intake, BMD differences between genotypes CC and GG were 10.2% at femoral neck (p = 0.012), 12.0% at trochanter (p = 0.012), and 16.8% at Ward's area (p = 0.0014) [13].

Anatomical context of Femur


Associations of Femur with chemical compounds

  • The mean differences in BMD between the 5-mg risedronate and the placebo groups were 3.8 +/- 0.8% at the lumbar spine (P < 0.001), 4.1 +/- 1.0% at the femoral neck (P < 0.001), and 4.6 +/- 0.8% at the femoral trochanter (P < 0.001) [19].
  • BMD was significantly reduced at the femoral neck and greater trochanter in both groups of RA patients, and at the spine from the anteroposterior dimension in the steroid-treated group [20].
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: After 2 years, oral daily ibandronate produced a dose-related and sustained maintenance or increase in BMD at the lumbar spine and hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter), together with a dose-related reduction in the rate of bone turnover [21].
  • Bone mineral density increased progressively in the total body (1.9 +/- 0.7%; P < 0.01), lumbar spine (7.0 +/- 1.0%; P < 0.0001), and femoral trochanter (5.4 +/- 1.3%; P < 0.001) in subjects receiving pamidronate, but did not change significantly in those receiving placebo [22].
  • Serum free testosterone was correlated with total body and trochanter BMD (r = 0.635; P = 0.048 and r = 0.629; P = 0.05), and serum free estradiol was correlated with total body and trochanter BMD (r = 0.641; P = 0.045 and r = 0.634; P = 0.048) [23].

Gene context of Femur

  • Serum SHBG, an inverse measure of estrogen activity, was positively related to osteocalcin levels (p = 0.004) and the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (p = 0.002) and negatively related to the BMD of the trochanter (left trochanter p = 0.02) and the distal radius (p = 0.001) [24].
  • A troponin I (TnI) mutation, hdp(3), leads to an absence of TnI in the IFMs and tergal depressor of trochanter (TDT) muscles due to a transcript-splicing defect [25].
  • Both mdx mice and myostatin-deficient mice have expanded femoral trochanters for attachment of large hindlimb muscles, and both mutant strains show increased cross-sectional area moments of inertia mediolaterally (Iyy) but not anteroposteriorly (Ixx) compared to normal mice [26].
  • From 219 Korean men aged 20-34 yr, we looked for six known polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in the LRP5 coding region, and investigated their association with bone mineral density (BMD) at the following anatomical sites: lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the left proximal femur (femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter and shaft) [27].
  • Baseline serum IGFBP-4 levels also correlated with total body, femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle BMD (r = 0.502, 0.590, 0.612, and 0.471, respectively,p < 0.05) [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Femur

  • The greater unadjusted rate of increase in deformity risk with age in women was attributable to their faster rate of bone loss with age; after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and BMD at the trochanter in grams per square centimeter, men had a 2-fold higher risk of deformity than women [29].
  • All three treatment groups differed significantly from placebo at the spine and for the hormone replacement therapy/estrogen replacement therapy groups at the femoral neck, spine, total hip and trochanter [30].
  • Lumbar spine and proximal femur (trochanter, femoral neck, total hip) BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum osteocalcin and creatinine-corrected urinary C-telopeptide of type I collagen (u-CTX/Cr) excretion were measured by ELISA [31].
  • In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we compared two different injection sites, 20 cm and 30 cm distal to the greater trochanter, in terms of onset time and success rate of sciatic nerve blockade after a single injection of 20 mL of 1.5% mepivacaine [32].
  • CONCLUSIONS: A circumferential plasma-spray titanium porous coating on the femoral component of a total hip-replacement prosthesis inserted without cement appears to provide an effective barrier preventing wear debris from gaining access to the endosteal surface of the femur and the greater trochanter [33].


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  2. Genetic and environmental determinants of bone mineral density in Chinese women. Lau, H.H., Ng, M.Y., Ho, A.Y., Luk, K.D., Kung, A.W. Bone (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Primary human osteoblast proliferation and prostaglandin E2 release in response to mechanical strain in vitro. Fermor, B., Gundle, R., Evans, M., Emerton, M., Pocock, A., Murray, D. Bone (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Cementless titanium tapered-wedge femoral stem: 10- to 15-year follow-up. Marshall, A.D., Mokris, J.G., Reitman, R.D., Dandar, A., Mauerhan, D.R. The Journal of arthroplasty. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Streptomycin-loaded bone cement in the treatment of tuberculous osteomyelitis: an adjunct to conventional therapy. Masri, B.A., Duncan, C.P., Jewesson, P., Ngui-Yen, J., Smith, J. Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Bone mineral density and metabolism in premenopausal women taking L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Garton, M., Reid, I., Loveridge, N., Robins, S., Murchison, L., Beckett, G., Reid, D. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group. Liberman, U.A., Weiss, S.R., Bröll, J., Minne, H.W., Quan, H., Bell, N.H., Rodriguez-Portales, J., Downs, R.W., Dequeker, J., Favus, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Prevention of estrogen deficiency-related bone loss with human parathyroid hormone-(1-34): a randomized controlled trial. Finkelstein, J.S., Klibanski, A., Arnold, A.L., Toth, T.L., Hornstein, M.D., Neer, R.M. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Bone mineral density in premenopausal women receiving long-term physiological doses of levothyroxine. Kung, A.W., Pun, K.K. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Oral clodronate and reduction in loss of bone mineral density in women with operable primary breast cancer. Powles, T.J., McCloskey, E., Paterson, A.H., Ashley, S., Tidy, V.A., Nevantaus, A., Rosenqvist, K., Kanis, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Generalised bone loss in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Gough, A.K., Lilley, J., Eyre, S., Holder, R.L., Emery, P. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Alcohol consumption and bone mineral density in older men. May, H., Murphy, S., Khaw, K.T. Gerontology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Interactions of interleukin-6 promoter polymorphisms with dietary and lifestyle factors and their association with bone mass in men and women from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Ferrari, S.L., Karasik, D., Liu, J., Karamohamed, S., Herbert, A.G., Cupples, L.A., Kiel, D.P. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Good maintenance of high-impact activity-induced bone gain by voluntary, unsupervised exercises: An 8-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Heinonen, A., Kannus, P., Sievänen, H., Pasanen, M., Oja, P., Vuori, I. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of prolonged nerve block on inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats: prevention of late hyperalgesia. Kissin, I., Lee, S.S., Bradley, E.L. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Dietary iron is associated with bone mineral density in healthy postmenopausal women. Harris, M.M., Houtkooper, L.B., Stanford, V.A., Parkhill, C., Weber, J.L., Flint-Wagner, H., Weiss, L., Going, S.B., Lohman, T.G. J. Nutr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Low BMD is less predictive than reported falls for future limb fractures in women across Europe: results from the European Prospective Osteoporosis Study. Kaptoge, S., Benevolenskaya, L.I., Bhalla, A.K., Cannata, J.B., Boonen, S., Falch, J.A., Felsenberg, D., Finn, J.D., Nuti, R., Hoszowski, K., Lorenc, R., Miazgowski, T., Jajic, I., Lyritis, G., Masaryk, P., Naves-Diaz, M., Poor, G., Reid, D.M., Scheidt-Nave, C., Stepan, J.J., Todd, C.J., Weber, K., Woolf, A.D., Roy, D.K., Lunt, M., Pye, S.R., O'neill, T.W., Silman, A.J., Reeve, J. Bone (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of conjugated estrogens on skin thickness. Maheux, R., Naud, F., Rioux, M., Grenier, R., Lemay, A., Guy, J., Langevin, M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Risedronate therapy prevents corticosteroid-induced bone loss: a twelve-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Cohen, S., Levy, R.M., Keller, M., Boling, E., Emkey, R.D., Greenwald, M., Zizic, T.M., Wallach, S., Sewell, K.L., Lukert, B.P., Axelrod, D.W., Chines, A.A. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Bone mineral density of the hip and of the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of the spine in men with rheumatoid arthritis. Effects of low-dose corticosteroids. Garton, M.J., Reid, D.M. Arthritis Rheum. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Oral daily ibandronate prevents bone loss in early postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. McClung, M.R., Wasnich, R.D., Recker, R., Cauley, J.A., Chesnut, C.H., Ensrud, K.E., Burdeska, A., Mills, T. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Continuous therapy with pamidronate, a potent bisphosphonate, in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Reid, I.R., Wattie, D.J., Evans, M.C., Gamble, G.D., Stapleton, J.P., Cornish, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Treatment of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover. Guo, C.Y., Jones, T.H., Eastell, R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Vitamin D status and sex hormone binding globulin: determinants of bone turnover and bone mineral density in elderly women. Ooms, M.E., Lips, P., Roos, J.C., van der Vijgh, W.J., Popp-Snijders, C., Bezemer, P.D., Bouter, L.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Troponin I is required for myofibrillogenesis and sarcomere formation in Drosophila flight muscle. Nongthomba, U., Clark, S., Cummins, M., Ansari, M., Stark, M., Sparrow, J.C. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Muscle-bone interactions in dystrophin-deficient and myostatin-deficient mice. Montgomery, E., Pennington, C., Isales, C.M., Hamrick, M.W. The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Association between bone mineral density and LDL receptor-related protein 5 gene polymorphisms in young Korean men. Koh, J.M., Jung, M.H., Hong, J.S., Park, H.J., Chang, J.S., Shin, H.D., Kim, S.Y., Kim, G.S. J. Korean Med. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP)-4 and -5 correlate with bone mineral density in growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults and increase with GH replacement therapy. Thorén, M., Hilding, A., Brismar, T., Magnusson, P., Degerblad, M., Larsson, L., Sääf, M., Baylink, D.J., Mohan, S. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Bone density variation and its effects on risk of vertebral deformity in men and women studied in thirteen European centers: the EVOS Study. Lunt, M., Felsenberg, D., Reeve, J., Benevolenskaya, L., Cannata, J., Dequeker, J., Dodenhof, C., Falch, J.A., Masaryk, P., Pols, H.A., Poor, G., Reid, D.M., Scheidt-Nave, C., Weber, K., Varlow, J., Kanis, J.A., O'Neill, T.W., Silman, A.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Combination treatment with estrogen and calcitriol in the prevention of age-related bone loss. Gallagher, J.C., Fowler, S.E., Detter, J.R., Sherman, S.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. The efficacy of 48-week oral ibandronate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis when taken 30 versus 60 minutes before breakfast. Tankó, L.B., McClung, M.R., Schimmer, R.C., Mahoney, P., Christiansen, C. Bone (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Does the site of injection distal to the greater trochanter make a difference in lateral sciatic nerve blockade? Taboada, M., Rodríguez, J., Del Rio, S., Lagunilla, J., Carceller, J., Alvarez, J., Atanassoff, P.G. Anesth. Analg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of circumferential plasma-spray porous coating on the rate of femoral osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty. Emerson, R.H., Sanders, S.B., Head, W.C., Higgins, L. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (1999) [Pubmed]
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