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Gene Review

REL  -  v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: I-Rel, Proto-oncogene c-Rel, c-Rel
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Disease relevance of REL


Psychiatry related information on REL

  • Patients, such as the REL group, who lack distressed mood at treatment entry, may require intense application of motivational approaches plus residential treatment [5].
  • Patients with MRel were randomly assigned to either a 'no therapy' group (group A, n=6), in which immunotherapy was reserved until CRel, or an 'immunotherapy' group (group B, n=7) [6].

High impact information on REL

  • The c-Rel protein is able to associate in vitro and in vivo with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) of the TFIID complex [7].
  • In this issue of Molecular Cell, Senger and colleagues demonstrate that a large number of immunity genes in Drosophila fat bodies can be regulated by a simple code, REL-GATA [8].
  • The REL/NF-kappaB/IkappaB superfamily of signal transducers and transcription factors are paradigmatic of molecular mechanisms by which rapid responses in the immune system can be achieved [9].
  • We now demonstrate that nuclear expression of human c-Rel, which is induced by either phorbol ester or tumor necrosis factor alpha with delayed kinetics relative to p65, markedly represses p65-mediated activation of these transcription units [10].
  • These data show that c-Rel can interact with DNA regions distinct from that recognized by NF-kappa B and may, in fact, be involved in transcriptional regulation of the IFN-stimulable genes via the IFN-stimulable response element [11].

Biological context of REL

  • A recurrent finding in all cell lines was the presence of chromosomal rearrangements of the short arm of chromosome 2 involving the REL oncogene locus [1].
  • Our data confirm previous cytogenetic results from primary Hodgkin's tumors suggesting an important pathogenic role of REL and JAK2 in this disease [1].
  • Furthermore, in these cells, both JD and EqM dose-dependently induced apoptosis, inhibited REL DNA-binding activity, and converted REL to a high molecular weight form [12].
  • Our study identified c-Rel as one component of the Rel/NF-kappa B-family proteins involved in the kappa B-dependent activation of IL-2R alpha gene expression [2].
  • The minimal region of gain contained 2 candidate oncogenes, REL and BCL11A [13].

Anatomical context of REL

  • The synthetic epoxyquinoids jesterone dimer and epoxyquinone A monomer induce apoptosis and inhibit REL (human c-Rel) DNA binding in an IkappaBalpha-deficient diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line [12].
  • We also find that deletion of 29 C-terminal amino acids causes the subcellular localization of REL to change from cytoplasmic to nuclear in chicken embryo fibroblasts [14].
  • These results demonstrate the presence of an interaction between internal and C-terminal regions of the c-rel protein that is important for the ability of c-rel to regulate the proliferation of lymphoid cells [15].
  • REL normalized leukocyte-endothelium interactions at the mesentery in single-injured animals [16].
  • In conclusion, the current in vivo observation of the mesenteric microcirculation after a double injury followed by REL is a suitable model for the systematic evaluation of the inflammatory reaction at local and distant sites [16].

Associations of REL with chemical compounds


Other interactions of REL

  • Kappa B site-dependent activation of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain gene promoter by human c-Rel [2].
  • Given the TRAF1 expression and known link to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- kappa B), MLBCLs were also evaluated for nuclear translocation of c-REL protein [21].
  • These results suggest that JD and EqM can induce apoptosis in IkappaBalpha-deficient lymphoma cells through a mechanism involving direct inhibition of transcription factor REL [12].
  • In A293 cells, JD and EqM inhibited the DNA-binding activity of overexpressed REL, but not p50 [12].
  • These data indicate that REL rather than BCL11A may be the target of the 2p13 alterations in cHL [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of REL


  1. Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines are characterized by frequent aberrations on chromosomes 2p and 9p including REL and JAK2. Joos, S., Granzow, M., Holtgreve-Grez, H., Siebert, R., Harder, L., Martín-Subero, J.I., Wolf, J., Adamowicz, M., Barth, T.F., Lichter, P., Jauch, A. Int. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Kappa B site-dependent activation of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain gene promoter by human c-Rel. Tan, T.H., Huang, G.P., Sica, A., Ghosh, P., Young, H.A., Longo, D.L., Rice, N.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. REL proto-oncogene is frequently amplified in extranodal diffuse large cell lymphoma. Houldsworth, J., Mathew, S., Rao, P.H., Dyomina, K., Louie, D.C., Parsa, N., Offit, K., Chaganti, R.S. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. NFkappaB activity, function, and target-gene signatures in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Feuerhake, F., Kutok, J.L., Monti, S., Chen, W., LaCasce, A.S., Cattoretti, G., Kurtin, P., Pinkus, G.S., de Leval, L., Harris, N.L., Savage, K.J., Neuberg, D., Habermann, T.M., Dalla-Favera, R., Golub, T.R., Aster, J.C., Shipp, M.A. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. DHEAS and POMS measures identify cocaine dependence treatment outcome. Wilkins, J.N., Majewska, M.D., Van Gorp, W., Li, S.H., Hinken, C., Plotkin, D., Setoda, D. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Preemptive treatment of minimal residual disease post transplant in CML using real-time quantitative RT-PCR: a prospective, randomized trial. Kim, Y.J., Kim, D.W., Lee, S., Chung, N.G., Hwang, J.Y., Kim, Y.L., Min, C.K., Kim, C.C. Bone Marrow Transplant. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Association between proto-oncoprotein Rel and TATA-binding protein mediates transcriptional activation by NF-kappa B. Kerr, L.D., Ransone, L.J., Wamsley, P., Schmitt, M.J., Boyer, T.G., Zhou, Q., Berk, A.J., Verma, I.M. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Learning the codes of fly immunity. Bettencourt, R., Ip, Y.T. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. NF-kappaB to the rescue: RELs, apoptosis and cellular transformation. Foo, S.Y., Nolan, G.P. Trends Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The c-rel protooncogene product represses NF-kappa B p65-mediated transcriptional activation of the long terminal repeat of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus. Doerre, S., Sista, P., Sun, S.C., Ballard, D.W., Greene, W.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. The c-rel protooncogene product c-Rel but not NF-kappa B binds to the intronic region of the human interferon-gamma gene at a site related to an interferon-stimulable response element. Sica, A., Tan, T.H., Rice, N., Kretzschmar, M., Ghosh, P., Young, H.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. The synthetic epoxyquinoids jesterone dimer and epoxyquinone A monomer induce apoptosis and inhibit REL (human c-Rel) DNA binding in an IkappaBalpha-deficient diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line. Liang, M.C., Bardhan, S., Porco, J.A., Gilmore, T.D. Cancer Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Recurrent involvement of the REL and BCL11A loci in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Martín-Subero, J.I., Gesk, S., Harder, L., Sonoki, T., Tucker, P.W., Schlegelberger, B., Grote, W., Novo, F.J., Calasanz, M.J., Hansmann, M.L., Dyer, M.J., Siebert, R. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Deletion of either C-terminal transactivation subdomain enhances the in vitro transforming activity of human transcription factor REL in chicken spleen cells. Starczynowski, D.T., Reynolds, J.G., Gilmore, T.D. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential pp40I kappa B-beta inhibition of DNA binding by rel proteins. Diehl, J.A., McKinsey, T.A., Hannink, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Leukocyte-endothelium interactions after hemorrhagic shock/reperfusion and cecal ligation/puncture: an intravital microscopic study in rat mesentery. Nakagawa, N.K., Nogueira, R.A., Correia, C.J., Shiwa, S.R., Costa Cruz, J.W., Poli de Figueiredo, L.F., Rocha E Silva, M., Sannomiya, P. Shock (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Pathobiology of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Pileri, S.A., Zinzani, P.L., Gaidano, G., Falini, B., Gaulard, P., Zucca, E., Sabattini, E., Ascani, S., Rossi, M., Cavalli, F. Leuk. Lymphoma (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular mechanisms of transformation by the v-rel oncogene. Hannink, M., Temin, H.M. Critical reviews in oncogenesis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Mutations of tumor necrosis factor alpha-responsive serine residues within the C-terminal transactivation domain of human transcription factor REL enhance its in vitro transforming ability. Starczynowski, D.T., Reynolds, J.G., Gilmore, T.D. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of a human REL-estrogen receptor fusion protein with a reverse conditional transforming activity in chicken spleen cells. Kalaitzidis, D., Ok, J., Sulak, L., Starczynowski, D.T., Gilmore, T.D. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The molecular signature of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma differs from that of other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and shares features with classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Savage, K.J., Monti, S., Kutok, J.L., Cattoretti, G., Neuberg, D., De Leval, L., Kurtin, P., Dal Cin, P., Ladd, C., Feuerhake, F., Aguiar, R.C., Li, S., Salles, G., Berger, F., Jing, W., Pinkus, G.S., Habermann, T., Dalla-Favera, R., Harris, N.L., Aster, J.C., Golub, T.R., Shipp, M.A. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between REL amplification, REL function, and clinical and biologic features in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Houldsworth, J., Olshen, A.B., Cattoretti, G., Donnelly, G.B., Teruya-Feldstein, J., Qin, J., Palanisamy, N., Shen, Y., Dyomina, K., Petlakh, M., Pan, Q., Zelenetz, A.D., Dalla-Favera, R., Chaganti, R.S. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. The BCL11 gene family: involvement of BCL11A in lymphoid malignancies. Satterwhite, E., Sonoki, T., Willis, T.G., Harder, L., Nowak, R., Arriola, E.L., Liu, H., Price, H.P., Gesk, S., Steinemann, D., Schlegelberger, B., Oscier, D.G., Siebert, R., Tucker, P.W., Dyer, M.J. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
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