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Gene Review

TCN1  -  transcobalamin I (vitamin B12 binding...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HC, Haptocorrin, Protein R, TC I, TC-1, ...
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Disease relevance of TCN1


High impact information on TCN1

  • While the TC-I sequence had no demonstrable enhanson activity, a class C enhanson (proto-enhancer), 5'-GGAAAGTCCCC-3', overlapping the TC-II sequence and the GT-I enhanson was identified [4].
  • We have isolated and characterized full length cDNA clones encoding TCI in order to determine whether its expression is coordinately regulated with the appearance of secondary granules and whether it is consequently a useful marker of granulocyte development [5].
  • Using the polymerase chain reaction, a partial TCI cDNA probe was isolated by selective amplification of a region of cDNA located between two oligonucleotides deduced from the available partial amino acid sequences [5].
  • TCI mRNA was present in late neutrophil precursors but absent from uninduced and induced HL60 cells [5].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that TC1 coordinates the up-regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes that are implicated in the aggressive biological behavior of cancers [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of TCN1


Biological context of TCN1

  • Homocysteine metabolism is influenced by genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 C-->T and 1298 A-->C) and transcobalamin genes (TCN1 776 C-->G ) [8].
  • Transcobalamin I (TCI) is a vitamin B12 binding protein that is found in the secondary granules of mature neutrophils [9].
  • RESULTS: Class-prediction analysis identified 112 probe sets as characterizing the TC1, TC2, TC4 and TC5 groups, whereas the TC3 samples showed heterogeneous phenotypes and no marker genes [10].
  • These Pu:Py tracts (TC1, TC1.1, TC2, and TC3) are located near or overlap critical Spl binding sites required for full activation of the gene [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: 1) importance of using serum holotranscobalamin TCI and TCII as markers of cobalamin deficiency, 2) necessity to use documented quantitative components of dietary intake if strong comparisons are to be made among quantitative values of serum or plasma homocysteine, folate, cobalamin, and nutrients in food intake [12].

Anatomical context of TCN1

  • The expression of the gene for TCI (TCN1) within neutrophils has been shown to be restricted to the later stages of myeloid development and can therefore be used as a marker for granulocyte differentiation [9].
  • Proportions of IFN-gamma+CD4+ T cells and IL-2+CD4+ T cells (Th1), and IFN-gamma+CD8+ and IL-2+CD8+ T cells (TC1) were significantly lower in autistic children as compared to healthy controls [13].
  • Even during the nadir leukocyte count, TCI and TCIII serum levels were normal or only slightly decreased indicating that bone marrow activity was not completely suppressed [14].
  • Despite the absence of measurable CTL responses, vaccination still reduced the growth of pre-established TC1 tumors, although less efficiently than in nontransgenic animals, but was unable to suppress or delay the development of the spontaneous thyroid pathology [15].
  • To evaluate the effect of tubular cell interaction products (TCIP) on KF proliferation, growth arrested kidney fibroblasts were treated with variable concentrations (5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%) of TCP, TCM-IP, TC-120IP, or TCM-120IP for 48 hours [16].

Associations of TCN1 with chemical compounds

  • TCN1, PGA, and PYGM did not yield any comigrating fragments and could not be physically linked on this PFGE map [17].
  • Serum homocysteine showed inverse relationship with RBC folate and serum total cobalamin, TCI and TCII [12].
  • A. aurescens TC1 is metabolically diverse and grew on a wider range of s-triazine compounds than any bacterium previously characterized [6].
  • A. aurescens TC1 grew in liquid medium with atrazine as the sole source of nitrogen, carbon, and energy, consuming up to 3,000 mg of atrazine per liter [6].
  • To evaluate the effect of TCIP on KF apoptosis, cells were treated with 50% TCP, 50% TCM-IP, 50% TC-120IP, or 50% TCM-120IP for 24 hours and stained with H-33342 and propidium iodide [16].

Other interactions of TCN1

  • A number of the exon/intron splice junctions of human TCII, TCI, and IF genes are located in homologous regions of these proteins, providing evidence that these genes have evolved by duplication of an ancestral gene [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TCN1

  • Isolates from serotype B and C were also tested for the presence of a TCN1 homolog, however, only some of these isolates yielded both a TCN1-specific PCR product or hybridization signal [19].
  • TCN-1 and TCN-2 recognized Ag in tissue culture trypomastigotes but not in the amastigotes, epimastigotes, or metacyclic trypomastigotes using immunoblot assays and immunofluorescence [20].
  • CONCLUSION: The TC1 group demonstrated a significantly better response and extension of progression-free survival, as well as significantly better survival after crossover and overall survival after primary surgery [21].
  • RESULTS: The response rates of the second-line chemotherapy for the TC1 and TC2 groups were 44% and 25% (P=0.09) [21].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: To separate the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), eight patients undergoing coronary revascularization (CABG) were compared with seven LVAD (TCI HeartMate) recipients intraoperatively and 2 hours postoperatively [22].


  1. The SV40 TC-II(kappa B) enhanson binds ubiquitous and cell type specifically inducible nuclear proteins from lymphoid and non-lymphoid cell lines. Macchi, M., Bornert, J.M., Davidson, I., Kanno, M., Rosales, R., Vigneron, M., Xiao, J.H., Fromental, C., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. TC1(C8orf4) correlates with Wnt/beta-catenin target genes and aggressive biological behavior in gastric cancer. Kim, B., Koo, H., Yang, S., Bang, S., Jung, Y., Kim, Y., Kim, J., Park, J., Moon, R.T., Song, K., Lee, I. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The majority of epidermal T cells in Psoriasis vulgaris lesions can produce type 1 cytokines, interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, defining TC1 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte) and TH1 effector populations: a type 1 differentiation bias is also measured in circulating blood T cells in psoriatic patients. Austin, L.M., Ozawa, M., Kikuchi, T., Walters, I.B., Krueger, J.G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The SV40 TC-II(kappa B) and the related H-2Kb enhansons exhibit different cell type specific and inducible proto-enhancer activities, but the SV40 core sequence and the AP-2 binding site have no enhanson properties. Kanno, M., Fromental, C., Staub, A., Ruffenach, F., Davidson, I., Chambon, P. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Structure of the cDNA encoding transcobalamin I, a neutrophil granule protein. Johnston, J., Bollekens, J., Allen, R.H., Berliner, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 metabolizes diverse s-triazine ring compounds. Strong, L.C., Rosendahl, C., Johnson, G., Sadowsky, M.J., Wackett, L.P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The influence of phagocytosis on transcobalamins releasing from polymorphonuclear granulocytes of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Fenrych, W., Hansz, J., Boduch, K. Folia Haematol. Int. Mag. Klin. Morphol. Blutforsch. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease. Anello, G., Guéant-Rodríguez, R.M., Bosco, P., Guéant, J.L., Romano, A., Namour, B., Spada, R., Caraci, F., Pourié, G., Daval, J.L., Ferri, R. Neuroreport (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Genomic structure and mapping of the chromosomal gene for transcobalamin I (TCN1): comparison to human intrinsic factor. Johnston, J., Yang-Feng, T., Berliner, N. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular classification of multiple myeloma: a distinct transcriptional profile characterizes patients expressing CCND1 and negative for 14q32 translocations. Agnelli, L., Bicciato, S., Mattioli, M., Fabris, S., Intini, D., Verdelli, D., Baldini, L., Morabito, F., Callea, V., Lombardi, L., Neri, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The human c-Src proto-oncogene promoter contains multiple targets for triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Ritchie, S., Bonham, K. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Atherogenesis and the homocysteine-folate-cobalamin triad: do we need standardized analyses? Flynn, M.A., Herbert, V., Nolph, G.B., Krause, G. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Th1- and Th2-like cytokines in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in autism. Gupta, S., Aggarwal, S., Rashanravan, B., Lee, T. J. Neuroimmunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Prognostic significance of changes in serum transcobalamin levels in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced granulocytopenia. Sulkes, A., Rachmilewitz, B., Rachmilewitz, M., Fuks, Z. Oncology (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Recombinant human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein as a model antigen to study the vaccine potential in control and E7 transgenic mice. Gérard, C.M., Baudson, N., Kraemer, K., Ledent, C., Pardoll, D., Bruck, C. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein and morphine-tubular cell interaction products modulate kidney fibroblast proliferation. Singhal, P.C., Sagar, S., Reddy, K., Sharma, P., Ranjan, R., Franki, N. J. Investig. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) map of twelve loci on chromosome 11q11-q13. Petty, E.M., Arnold, A., Marx, S.J., Bale, A.E. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. The cloning and characterization of the human transcobalamin II gene. Regec, A., Quadros, E.V., Platica, O., Rothenberg, S.P. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. A retrotransposon-derived probe for discriminating strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. Keller, S.M., Hettler, E.A., Wickes, B.L. Mycopathologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Monoclonal antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi neuraminidase reveal enzyme polymorphism, recognize a subset of trypomastigotes, and enhance infection in vitro. Prioli, R.P., Mejia, J.S., Pereira, M.E. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Primary chemotherapy-associated effect of second-line chemotherapy on survival of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Isonishi, S., Hirama, M., Saitou, M., Yasuda, M., Tanaka, T. Int. J. Clin. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems leads to hemorrhagic complications during left ventricular assist implantation. Livingston, E.R., Fisher, C.A., Bibidakis, E.J., Pathak, A.S., Todd, B.A., Furukawa, S., McClurken, J.B., Addonizio, V.P., Jeevanandam, V. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
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