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Gene Review

Sptbn4  -  spectrin beta, non-erythrocytic 4

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1700022P15Rik, 5830426A08Rik, ROSA62, SpbIV, Spnb4, ...
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Disease relevance of Spnb4


Psychiatry related information on Spnb4


High impact information on Spnb4

  • At the end of incubation endothelial cells were perfused with total leukocyte suspension in a parallel plate flow chamber under laminar flow (1.5 dyn/cm2) [8].
  • At a wall shear stress of 1.85 dyn/cm2, neutrophils were found to attach to E-selectin expressed on the apical surface of L cell monolayers [9].
  • Here, we show that fluid shear above a threshold of 0.5 dyn/cm2 wall shear stress significantly enhances HL-60 myelocyte rolling on P- and E-selectin at site densities of 200/microm2 and below [10].
  • The mean shear viscosity and elasticity of the intranuclear region of Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts are 520 Poise (P) and 180 dyn/cm(2), respectively [11].
  • RESULTS: At T0, HUVEC were either exposed to SS (15 dyn/cm2/s(-1)), treated with SNP or kept in static condition (ST) for 1-12 h; after additional 12 h in ST, 30-35% of cells still alive at T0 had died [12].

Biological context of Spnb4


Anatomical context of Spnb4

  • Flow cytometry was used to identify proliferating CD31-positive pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (mPMVECs) from wild-type, Kir6.2-/-, and gp91phox-/- mice. mPMVECs were labeled with PKH26 and cultured in artificial capillaries for 72 h at 5 dyn/cm2 (flow adaptation), followed by 24 h of stop flow or continued flow [15].
  • Pathological examination revealed neuroaxonal dystrophy and degeneration in the gracile nucleus of the medulla oblongata and the gracile fascicules of the spinal cord, which could be the main cause of the clinical signs [16].
  • Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) was found in long-term centrifuged rats and was characterized by axons filled with reticulated mitochondria [17].
  • Up to a shear stress of 5.5 dyn/cm2, where 95% of the data points were found, the dystrophic erythrocytes were slightly but significantly more deformable than the normal erythrocytes [18].
  • We subjected these cells to 90 min of laminar fluid shear stress (10 dyn/cm(2)) and compared the PGE(2) and PGI(2) release and induction of cyclooxygenase-2 protein to control cells with intact cytoskeletons [19].

Associations of Spnb4 with chemical compounds

  • Nitrite production (2,3-diaminonaphthalene fluorometric assay) increased 12-, 16-, and 23-fold at 3.3, 10, and 30 dyn/cm(2), respectively, compared with static control cultures [20].
  • Preincubation with the non-isoform-specific NO synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester reduced nitrite production by 83% in response to 30 dyn/cm(2) [20].
  • Chronic phenytoin administration to mice is a new experimental model of neuroaxonal dystrophy [21].
  • The antianalgesic effect of dynorphin A (1-17) (dyn A) was demonstrated by i.c.v. administration of agonists (morphine, Tyr-D-Ala2-Gly-N-MePhe4-Gly-ol5, D-Pen2-D-Pen5-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, U50,488H and physostigmine) at 10 min and intrathecal administration of dyn A at 5 min before the tail-flick test in mice [22].
  • Importantly, the lowest shear stress tested (4.5 dyn/cm2) for 3 h washed away cells on chitosan suggesting weak cell adhesion [23].

Other interactions of Spnb4


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spnb4

  • We also determined that the shear stress at the cell surface could be reduced by as much as 30 times (channel height of 100 microm) in the grooved-substrate (0.5 dyn/cm(2)) bioreactor compared to the flat-substrate (15 dyn/cm(2)) bioreactor for a medium flow rate of 4.0 mL/min [25].


  1. Endothelial cell Ca2+ increases upon tumor cell contact and modulates cell-cell adhesion. Pili, R., Corda, S., Passaniti, A., Ziegelstein, R.C., Heldman, A.W., Capogrossi, M.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Impairment of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and recycling during neuromuscular weakness produced in mice by 2,4-dithiobiuret. Xu, Y.F., Autio, D., Rheuben, M.B., Atchison, W.D. J. Neurophysiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. CD44-chondroitin sulfate interactions mediate leukocyte rolling under physiological flow conditions. Murai, T., Sougawa, N., Kawashima, H., Yamaguchi, K., Miyasaka, M. Immunol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: electron microscopical and immunohistochemical demonstration of neurofilament accumulations within affected neurites. Liberski, P.P., Budka, H., Yanagihara, R., Gajdusek, D.C. J. Comp. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: light microscopic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of the Fujisaki strain of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease virus in NIH Swiss mice. Liberski, P.P., Yanagihara, R., Gibbs, C.J., Gajdusek, D.C. Neuropatologia polska. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Reevaluation of the ultrastructural pathology of experimental Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Serial studies of the Fujisaki strain of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease virus in mice. Liberski, P.P., Yanagihara, R., Asher, D.M., Gibbs, C.J., Gajdusek, D.C. Brain (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Neuroaxonal dystrophy: an ultrastructural link between subacute spongiform virus encephalopathies and Alzheimer's disease. Liberski, P.P., Yanagihara, R., Gibbs, C.J., Gajdusek, D.C. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Leukocyte-endothelial interaction is augmented by high glucose concentrations and hyperglycemia in a NF-kB-dependent fashion. Morigi, M., Angioletti, S., Imberti, B., Donadelli, R., Micheletti, G., Figliuzzi, M., Remuzzi, A., Zoja, C., Remuzzi, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. E-selectin supports neutrophil rolling in vitro under conditions of flow. Abbassi, O., Kishimoto, T.K., McIntire, L.V., Anderson, D.C., Smith, C.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Threshold levels of fluid shear promote leukocyte adhesion through selectins (CD62L,P,E). Lawrence, M.B., Kansas, G.S., Kunkel, E.J., Ley, K. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Micro-organization and visco-elasticity of the interphase nucleus revealed by particle nanotracking. Tseng, Y., Lee, J.S., Kole, T.P., Jiang, I., Wirtz, D. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) mediates shear stress-dependent antiapoptotic function. Mattiussi, S., Turrini, P., Testolin, L., Martelli, F., Zaccagnini, G., Mangoni, A., Barlucchi, L.M., Antonini, A., Illi, B., Cirielli, C., Padron, J., Nicolò, C., Testi, R., Osculati, F., Biglioli, P., Capogrossi, M.C., Gaetano, C. Cardiovasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. A new mouse model for infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, inad mouse, maps to mouse chromosome 1. Matsushima, Y., Kikuchi, T., Kikuchi, H., Ichihara, N., Ishikawa, A., Ishijima, Y., Tachibana, M. Mamm. Genome (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Pathogenesis of axonal dystrophy and demyelination in alphaA-crystallin-expressing transgenic mice. Van Rijk, A.F., Sweers, M.A., Merkx, G.F., Lammens, M., Bloemendal, H. International journal of experimental pathology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Lung endothelial cell proliferation with decreased shear stress is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Milovanova, T., Chatterjee, S., Manevich, Y., Kotelnikova, I., Debolt, K., Madesh, M., Moore, J.S., Fisher, A.B. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Gracile axonal dystrophy (GAD), a new neurological mutant in the mouse. Yamazaki, K., Wakasugi, N., Tomita, T., Kikuchi, T., Mukoyama, M., Ando, K. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. The effects of centrifugation on the morphology of the lateral vestibular nucleus in the rat: a light and electron microscopic study. Johnson, J.E., Mehler, W.R., Oyama, J. Brain Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Membrane elasticity of erythrocytes from normal and dystrophic mice. Missirlis, Y.F., Vanderwel, M., Brain, M.C. Muscle Nerve (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Fluid shear stress induction of COX-2 protein and prostaglandin release in cultured MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts does not require intact microfilaments or microtubules. Norvell, S.M., Ponik, S.M., Bowen, D.K., Gerard, R., Pavalko, F.M. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Shear stress-mediated NO production in inner medullary collecting duct cells. Cai, Z., Xin, J., Pollock, D.M., Pollock, J.S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Degeneration of granule cells following chronic phenytoin administration: an electron microscopic investigation of the mouse cerebellum. Volk, B., Kirchgässner, N., Detmar, M. Exp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Systemic single dose morphine pretreatment desensitizes mice to the spinal antianalgesic action of dynorphin A (1-17). Fujimoto, J.M., Holmes, B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. In vitro characterization of chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering. Huang, Y., Onyeri, S., Siewe, M., Moshfeghian, A., Madihally, S.V. Biomaterials (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Axonal degeneration of ascending sensory neurons in gracile axonal dystrophy mutant mouse. Kikuchi, T., Mukoyama, M., Yamazaki, K., Moriya, H. Acta Neuropathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Microfabricated grooved substrates as platforms for bioartificial liver reactors. Park, J., Berthiaume, F., Toner, M., Yarmush, M.L., Tilles, A.W. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
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