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Gene Review

TET1  -  tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CXXC-type zinc finger protein 6, CXXC6, KIAA1676, LCX, Leukemia-associated protein with a CXXC domain, ...
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Disease relevance of CXXC6

  • Tet1 phage binding was selective for neurons [1].
  • Fluorescein-conjugated synthetic Tet1, but not Tet2, peptide showed strong binding to cultured PC12, primary motor neurons, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells [1].
  • Incidence of sudden death was 11% (16 of 144) in patients with lesions of the left anterior descending branch (LAD), 8% (4 of 55) in lesions of the right (RCA) and 7% (1 of 15) in those with lesions of the left circumflex (LCX) coronary artery [2].
  • CONCLUSION: Electron-beam CT angiography can depict hemodynamically significant stenoses in the LAD and LCX with a sensitivity of more than 90% [3].
  • We conducted a comparative study of CX-397 and heparin in a canine model of left circumflex (LCX) coronary artery thrombosis to evaluate the anti-thrombotic efficacy of CX-397 [4].

High impact information on CXXC6

  • These 20 patients had a total of 47 grafts, defined as proximal anastomoses: 20 to the left anterior descending or diagonal artery (LAD), 13 to the left circumflex artery marginal branches (LCX), and 14 to the right coronary artery or posterior descending artery (RCA) [5].
  • Although there was no difference in the extent of coronary vasoconstriction between the LAD and LCX before or immediately after endothelial denudation, after intravenous administration of ergonovine a significant augmentation of coronary constriction along the denuded portion was noted arteriographically in the long-term phase (1 to 6 months) [6].
  • In the 12 patients with significant left main or both left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) lesions, the calculated amount of lactate released at rest was 0.136 +/- 0.045 mumol/ml of blood (mean +/- SD) [7].
  • LCX consisted of at least 12 exons and was predicted to encode a 2136-amino-acid protein with an estimated molecular mass of 235.3 kDa [8].
  • LCX was expressed in 8 of 22 leukemic cell lines, but not in EBV-induced normal B-cell lines [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of CXXC6

  • LAD infarction was present in both saline (14.1 +/- 2.3%) and bretylium (15.1 +/- 2.1% of left ventricle) treated animals with only bretylium-treated animals developing LCX infarcts (16.1 +/- 2.1%) [9].
  • After control for age, gender, history of diabetes mellitus, and serum cholesterol level, the adjusted relative risk for an RCA lesion (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [MOR] = 4.9) was significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) compared with the LAD (MOR = 1.9) but not with the LCX (MOR = 3.1) [10].
  • The correlation coefficients between maximal stenosis within the LAD, RCA, and LCX vascular territories and the corresponding initial uptake of thallium were 0.52 (P = 0.0001), 0.30 (P = 0.04), and 0.46 (P = 0.02), respectively [11].

Biological context of CXXC6

  • CXXC10 locus at 2p13.1, CXXC4-KIAA1546 locus at 4q24, and CXXC6 locus at 10q21.3 were paralogous regions within the human genome [12].
  • Applied to the tomato collection, the combined enzymatic degradations and HPAEC analyses revealed that the firm LCX and CER genotypes showed a higher proportion of glucuronoxylans and pectic arabinan side chains while the mealy LC9 genotype demonstrated the highest content of pectic galactan side chains [13].
  • Univariate analysis demonstrated that triple-vessel disease, dominant LCX, cardiogenic shock, poor left ventricular ejection fraction, and unsuccessful reperfusion were significantly associated with 30-day mortality [14].
  • Large fruited line, Levovil (LEV) carrying introgressed chromosome fragments from a cherry tomato line Cervil (CER) on chromosomes 4 (LC4), 9 (LC9), or on chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and 9 (LCX) and containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for texture traits, was studied [13].
  • All 6 of the patients in group B also had an exercise-induced decrease in thallium uptake in the segments supplied by the occluded RCA or LCX with collateral circulation, but none showed a decrease in thallium uptake in the segments supplied by the LAD [15].

Anatomical context of CXXC6

  • The enhanced neuronal binding affinity and specificity of Tet1, a novel 12 amino acid peptide, suggests potential utility for targeting neurotherapeutic proteins and viral vectors in the treatment of motor neuron disease, neuropathy, and pain [1].
  • Of 477 treated lesions, 60% were type B2, and 19% type C. The lesion was located in the LAD in 61%, in the LCX in 16%, in the RCA in 20%, in a protected left main stem in 1.3% and in a saphenous vein graft in 2.5%, respectively [16].
  • Half-time values were calculated from regions of interest drawn over myocardium perfused by the left-anterior descending branch (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCX) [17].
  • The percentage of injured endothelial cells in LAD and LCX was 0.18 and 0.16, and in non-branched and circumostial areas of the descending thoracic aorta the corresponding figures were 0.22 and 0.28 [18].
  • There were, on average, 344 and 236 adherent leukocytes/mm2 in the non-branched and circumostial areas of the descending thoracic aorta, respectively, compared to 13 in the LAD and 23 in the LCX [18].

Associations of CXXC6 with chemical compounds

  • Proximal coronary artery luminal diameters were measured using automated computerized quantitative angiography of the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (LCX) vessels [19].
  • Four days later while in the ambulatory state, a 150 microA current was applied to the intimal surface of the LCX of saline (n = 10) and bretylium (n = 10) treated animals [9].
  • METHODS: Fifteen domestic pigs were stented with RG-13577/ATA-coated (n=6), ATA-coated (n=12), and bare metal stents (n=12) in the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) coronary arteries [20].
  • The highest dose of vasoconstrictor was used during LCX anastomosis [21].
  • The average diameters without and with Nitrate for the LMA, LAD, LCX, and RCA were 4.3 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.9 mm (12 % increase, p < 0.005), 3.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.5 mm (17 % increase, p < 0.001), 2.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.7 mm (19 % increase, p < 0.005), and 2.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.7 mm (21 % increase, p < 0.005), respectively [22].

Other interactions of CXXC6


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CXXC6

  • Immunofluorescence also confirmed selective PC12 binding of Tet1 and Tet2 phage [1].
  • In 15 mongrel dogs, selective endothelial denudation of either the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) or left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was repeated twice 1 month apart by means of coronary arterial catheterization [6].
  • This analysis resulted in the following true-positive/true-negative rates for overall perfusion abnormalities and abnormalities of the LAD, LCX and RCA vascular territories: 97%/67%, 94%/73%, 73%/90% and 72%/91%, respectively [23].
  • Regional quantitative analysis of MIBG uptake and washout rates was performed using the SPECT data from the anteroseptal, lateral, and inferior myocardial regions, which represented vascular supply by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA), respectively [24].
  • A full length cDNA clone (TET-1) was isolated, characterized, and used for Northern blot and in situ hybridization [25].


  1. A novel peptide defined through phage display for therapeutic protein and vector neuronal targeting. Liu, J.K., Teng, Q., Garrity-Moses, M., Federici, T., Tanase, D., Imperiale, M.J., Boulis, N.M. Neurobiol. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Natural history of single vessel disease. Risk of sudden coronary death in relation to coronary anatomy and arrhythmia profile. Trappe, H.J., Lichtlen, P.R., Klein, H., Wenzlaff, P., Hartwig, C.A. Eur. Heart J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Coronary artery stenoses: assessment with contrast-enhanced electron-beam CT and axial reconstructions. Reddy, G.P., Chernoff, D.M., Adams, J.R., Higgins, C.B. Radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Anti-thrombotic effects of CX-397, a recombinant hirudin analog, in a canine model of coronary artery thrombosis. Ohyama, T., Hori, T., Moriike, M., Asano, T., Hayashi, H., Iwade, K., Hosoda, S. Thromb. Haemost. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate patency of aortocoronary bypass grafts. Rubinstein, R.I., Askenase, A.D., Thickman, D., Feldman, M.S., Agarwal, J.B., Helfant, R.H. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Selective hypercontraction caused by ergonovine in the canine coronary artery under conditions of induced atherosclerosis. Kawachi, Y., Tomoike, H., Maruoka, Y., Kikuchi, Y., Araki, H., Ishii, Y., Tanaka, K., Nakamura, M. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Myocardial lactate metabolism: evidence of lactate release during net chemical extraction in man. Gertz, E.W., Wisneski, J.A., Neese, R., Bristow, J.D., Searle, G.L., Hanlon, J.T. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. LCX, leukemia-associated protein with a CXXC domain, is fused to MLL in acute myeloid leukemia with trilineage dysplasia having t(10;11)(q22;q23). Ono, R., Taki, T., Taketani, T., Taniwaki, M., Kobayashi, H., Hayashi, Y. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Prevention of ventricular fibrillation by bretylium in a conscious canine model of sudden coronary death. Holland, K., Patterson, E., Lucchesi, B.R. Am. Heart J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of cigarette smoking on the pattern of coronary atherosclerosis. A case-control study. Vander Zwaag, R., Lemp, G.F., Hughes, J.P., Ramanathan, K.B., Sullivan, J.M., Schick, E.C., Mirvis, D.M. Chest (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Does diffuse coronary atherosclerosis affect the relation between coronary stenoses and uptake of thallium-201 after exercise? Ericsson, C.G., Erhardt, L., Hamsten, A., Mesko, L., Szamosi, A., Zetterquist, S., de Faire, U. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification and characterization of human CXXC10 gene in silico. Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Fast data preprocessing for chromatographic fingerprints of tomato cell wall polysaccharides using chemometric methods. Quéméner, B., Bertrand, D., Marty, I., Causse, M., Lahaye, M. Journal of chromatography. A (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Clinical features and outcome of patients with direct percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction resulting from left circumflex artery occlusion. Yip, H.K., Wu, C.J., Fu, M., Yeh, K.H., Yu, T.H., Hung, W.C., Chen, M.C. Chest (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Perfusion reserve of coronary collateral circulation and its significance in the development of exercise-induced ischemia in patients with multivessel disease. Miyakoda, H., Noguchi, N., Omodani, H., Osaki, S., Kitamura, H., Matsumoto, T., Ogino, K., Hoshio, A., Kotake, H., Mashiba, H. Jpn. Circ. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Clinical results of coronary excimer laser angioplasty: report from the European Coronary Excimer Laser Angioplasty Registry. Baumbach, A., Oswald, H., Kvasnicka, J., Fleck, E., Geschwind, H.J., Ozbek, C., Reifart, N., Bertrand, M.E., Karsch, K.R. Eur. Heart J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. The elimination rate of 123I-heptadecanoic acid after intracoronary and intravenous administration. Visser, F.C., van Eenige, M.J., van der Wall, E.E., Westera, G., van Engelen, C.J., van Lingen, A., de Cock, C.C., den Hollander, W., Heidendal, G.A., Roos, J.P. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Endothelial injury and leukocyte adherence in Häutchen preparations from coronary arteries and aorta of cynomolgus monkeys. Skantze, H.B., Kaplan, J., Bondjers, G., Manuck, S., Pettersson, K. Atherosclerosis (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Coronary reactivity to ergonovine--possible relationship to accelerated coronary arterial disease in cardiac transplant recipients. Kushwaha, S., Lythall, D., Maseri, A., Mitchell, A., Yacoub, M. Eur. Heart J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Paradoxical effects of aurintricarboxylic acid and RG-13577: acute thrombosis and in-stent stenosis in a passive-coated stent. Strehblow, C., Sperker, W., Hevesi, A., Garamvölgyi, R., Petrasi, Z., Shirazi, M., Sylvén, C., Weiss, T., Lotan, C., Pugatsch, T., Ben-Sasson, S.A., Orlowski, M., Glogar, D., Gyöngyösi, M. J. Endovasc. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of serial haemodynamic changes during coronary artery anastomoses in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: initial experiences using two deep pericardial stay sutures and octopus tissue stabilizer. Shinn, H.K., Oh, Y.J., Kim, S.H., Lee, J.H., Lee, C.S., Kwak, Y.L. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Multislice CT coronary angiography: effect of sublingual nitroglycerine on the diameter of coronary arteries. Dewey, M., Hoffmann, H., Hamm, B. RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Quantitative same-day rest-stress technetium-99m-sestamibi SPECT: definition and validation of stress normal limits and criteria for abnormality. Van Train, K.F., Areeda, J., Garcia, E.V., Cooke, C.D., Maddahi, J., Kiat, H., Germano, G., Silagan, G., Folks, R., Berman, D.S. J. Nucl. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Cardiac adrenergic innervation is affected in asymptomatic subjects with very early stage of coronary artery disease. Simula, S., Vanninen, E., Viitanen, L., Kareinen, A., Lehto, S., Pajunen, P., Syvänne, M., Kuikka, J., Laakso, M., Hartikainen, J. J. Nucl. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Tetranectin, a plasminogen kringle 4-binding protein. Cloning and gene expression pattern in human colon cancer. Wewer, U.M., Albrechtsen, R. Lab. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
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