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Gene Review

Thra  -  thyroid hormone receptor alpha

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: C-erba-alpha, ERBA1, Nr1a1, Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group A member 1, Thra1, ...
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Disease relevance of Thra


High impact information on Thra


Biological context of Thra

  • These data indicate that these two c-erbA mRNAs are regulated by T3 and suggest that the T3 effect on T3 binding-activity in GH cells may be mediated, in part, by down-regulation of c-erbA mRNA levels [9].
  • We have isolated a novel rat c-erbA cDNA, r-erbA alpha-2, identical to the rat brain c-erbA alpha cDNA (which we refer to as r-erbA alpha-1) except at the 3'-end of the cDNA, which encodes an altered carboxy-terminal region of the predicted amino acid sequence [10].
  • DNA-binding studies with in vitro translated c-erbA indicate that each of the S14 TREs contains a specific binding site for the receptor [11].
  • The analysis of a series of deletion and point mutants of the c-erbA-1 promoter led to the identification of an upstream region that is necessary for NS1-driven transactivation [12].
  • The proto-oncogene c-erbA and its analogues are genes that encode thyroid hormone receptors [13].

Anatomical context of Thra

  • Comparison of the concentrations of c-erbA alpha 1-mRNA, beta 1-mRNA, or their sum to the T3 nuclear binding capacity per mg of DNA in adult liver, kidney, heart, cerebrum, and cerebellum and during the ontogeny of liver and brain shows that the T3 binding capacity/c-erbA mRNA ratio is tissue-specific and related to developmental state [14].
  • Regulation of multiple c-erbA gene expression was studied in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells [15].
  • TR beta 1, TR alpha 1 and c-erbA-alpha 2 mRNAs were detected in brown adipocytes [16].
  • Developmental regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 mRNA expression in the rat testis [17].
  • We have previously found that TR beta-1 is the major receptor form expressed in the adult rat small intestine, although there are also moderate levels of c-erbA alpha-2, a nonhormone-binding variant that is thought to inhibit T3 action [18].

Associations of Thra with chemical compounds

  • c-erbA cDNAs encoding thyroid hormone-binding receptor proteins have been previously isolated from several species and tissues [10].
  • The reduction of receptor caused by retinoic acid is accompanied by a decreased expression of c-erbA alpha 1 and alpha 2 mRNAs, but the retinoid did not reduce the abundance of c-erbA beta mRNA [19].
  • A novel member of the thyroid/steroid hormone receptor family is encoded by the opposite strand of the rat c-erbA alpha transcriptional unit [20].
  • The presence of noradrenaline, a positive control for UCP expression, increased only the level of expression of the 5.5-kb c-erbA alpha-mRNA, but values for nuclear T3-binding capacity similar to those obtained in T3-treated cells were observed [21].
  • Immunohistochemical detection of c-myc and c-erbA products in diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic liver lesions in rats [22].

Other interactions of Thra


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thra


  1. Differential expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in neurons and astroglial cells. Leonard, J.L., Farwell, A.P., Yen, P.M., Chin, W.W., Stula, M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. The chicken c-erbA alpha-product induces expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor-deficient rat hepatoma cells. Muñoz, A., Höppner, W., Sap, J., Brady, G., Nordström, K., Seitz, H.J., Vennström, B. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Increase in c-erbA alpha 2 mRNA in the parvocellular region of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following thyroidectomy in the adult male rat. Koibuchi, N., Gibbs, R.B., Jones, K.E., Yamaoka, S., Chin, W.W., Pfaff, D.W., Suzuki, M. Neurosci. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Post-transcriptional induction of beta 1-adrenergic receptor by retinoic acid, but not triiodothyronine, in C6 glioma cells expressing thyroid hormone receptors. López-Barahona, M., Iglesias, T., García-Higuera, I., Mayor, F., Zaballos, A., Bernal, J., Muñoz, A. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha isoforms generated by alternative splicing differentially activate myosin HC gene transcription. Izumo, S., Mahdavi, V. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of a thyroid hormone receptor that is pituitary-specific. Hodin, R.A., Lazar, M.A., Wintman, B.I., Darling, D.S., Koenig, R.J., Larsen, P.R., Moore, D.D., Chin, W.W. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential and tissue-specific regulation of the multiple rat c-erbA messenger RNA species by thyroid hormone. Hodin, R.A., Lazar, M.A., Chin, W.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Normal timing of oligodendrocyte development depends on thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (TRalpha1). Billon, N., Jolicoeur, C., Tokumoto, Y., Vennström, B., Raff, M. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of two c-erbA messenger ribonucleic acids in rat GH3 cells by thyroid hormone. Lazar, M.A., Chin, W.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a rat c-erbA alpha-related protein which binds deoxyribonucleic acid but does not bind thyroid hormone. Lazar, M.A., Hodin, R.A., Darling, D.S., Chin, W.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of multiple thyroid hormone response elements located far upstream from the rat S14 promoter. Zilz, N.D., Murray, M.B., Towle, H.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Transactivation of a cellular promoter by the NS1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice through a putative hormone-responsive element. Vanacker, J.M., Corbau, R., Adelmant, G., Perros, M., Laudet, V., Rommelaere, J. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Thyroid hormone receptor and receptor-related RNA levels in developing rat brain. North, D., Fisher, D.A. Pediatr. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Relationship of c-erbA mRNA content to tissue triiodothyronine nuclear binding capacity and function in developing and adult rats. Strait, K.A., Schwartz, H.L., Perez-Castillo, A., Oppenheimer, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential regulation of multiple c-erbA expression by thyrotropin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. Kamikubo, K., Nayfeh, S.N., Chae, C.B. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Presence and mRNA expression of T3 receptors in differentiating rat brown adipocytes. Hernández, A., Obregón, M.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Developmental regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 mRNA expression in the rat testis. Jannini, E.A., Dolci, S., Ulisse, S., Nikodem, V.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Thyroid hormone responsiveness is developmentally regulated in the rat small intestine: a possible role for the alpha-2 receptor variant. Hodin, R.A., Meng, S., Chamberlain, S.M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Retinoic acid decreases thyroid hormone receptor expression in pituitary GH1 cells. Pérez, P., Sánchez-Pacheco, A., Pascual, A., Aranda, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel member of the thyroid/steroid hormone receptor family is encoded by the opposite strand of the rat c-erbA alpha transcriptional unit. Lazar, M.A., Hodin, R.A., Darling, D.S., Chin, W.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Triiodothyronine induces the expression of the uncoupling protein in long term fetal rat brown adipocyte primary cultures: role of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor expression. Guerra, C., Porras, A., Roncero, C., Benito, M., Fernandez, M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunohistochemical detection of c-myc and c-erbA products in diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic and neoplastic liver lesions in rats. Alexandre, K., Jacobovitz, D., Galand, P. Carcinogenesis (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Zonal expression of the thyroid hormone receptor alpha isoforms in rodent liver. Zandieh-Doulabi, B., Dop, E., Schneiders, M., Schiphorst, M.P., Mansen, A., Vennström, B., Dijkstra, C.D., Bakker, O., Wiersinga, W.M. J. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential expression of protooncogenes related to transformation and cancer progression in rat myoblasts. Leibovitch, S.A., Leibovitch, M.P., Guillier, M., Hillion, J., Harel, J. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Estimation of the protein content of thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 and beta 1 in rat tissues by western blotting. Tagami, T., Nakamura, H., Sasaki, S., Miyoshi, Y., Imura, H. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
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