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Gene Review

Dll1  -  delta-like 1 (Drosophila)

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Delta-like protein 1, Delta1, Drosophila Delta homolog 1
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Disease relevance of Dll1


Psychiatry related information on Dll1

  • These include fragmentation of sleep, increased wake time, decrease in the length of sleep bouts, decrease in the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of sleep, decrease in rapid eye movement sleep and a profound decrease in electroencephalogram Delta power (0.3-4 Hz) [5].
  • Co-administered Delta 9-THC provided protection against the long-term increases in anxiety seen in the emergence test, but not the social interaction test, 6 weeks after MDMA treatment [6].
  • Microinjection of the delta-1 opioid receptor agonist [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) or the delta-2 opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Glu4]deltorphin (DELT) in the VMM increased response latency in the radiant heat tail-flick test with respective ED50 values (95% CL) of 0.66 (0.07-1.5) nmol and 0.1 (0.03-0.21) nmol [7].
  • Significant increases in Delta sleep duration, with significant decreases in light sleep and wakefulness were observed during the repeated exposure to zolpidem [8].
  • delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced alterations in limbic and neocortical function are associated with deficiencies in short-term memory and recall [9].

High impact information on Dll1


Chemical compound and disease context of Dll1


Biological context of Dll1

  • A reduction in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Delta psi(m)) occurred considerably later than cytochrome c translocation [19].
  • The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the pancaspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk did not prevent cytochrome c release, but completely blocked the reduction in Delta psi(m), DNA fragmentation and apoptosis [19].
  • Taken together these results suggest that the serum factor in conjunction with the immune cells may be participating in the efficient rejection of the tumor in syngeneic hosts and Delta psi(m) disruption but not cytochrome c release, is a critical and decisive event to trigger apoptotic cell death induced by the serum factor in AK-5 tumor cells [19].
  • Endogenous activation of mu and delta-1 opioid receptors is required for long-term potentiation induction in the lateral perforant path: dependence on GABAergic inhibition [20].
  • Bath application of the mu receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) or the delta 1 receptor agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) produced a long-linear, concentration-dependent reduction in the amplitude of the evoked EPSP/EPSC [21].

Anatomical context of Dll1

  • Inhibitory actions of delta 1-, delta 2-, and mu-opioid receptor agonists on excitatory transmission in lamina II neurons of adult rat spinal cord [21].
  • Possibly connected to the RNA editing mechanism, GluR-B was the only subunit whose RNA was concentrated in motor neuron cell nuclei in addition to the cytoplasm. delta-1 and -2 mRNAs were found at low levels throughout the gray matter [22].
  • In ATP-energized mitochondria, ceramides do not alter Delta Psi, neither when cyto c is oxidized nor when it is reduced, ruling out a nonspecific disturbance by ceramides of mitochondrial membrane integrity [23].
  • delta 4-3-Ketosteroid 5 beta-reductase was purified from male rat liver cytosol [24].
  • Cultured hepatocytes did not express Delta-like, a specific marker for oval cells and hepatoblasts [25].

Associations of Dll1 with chemical compounds

  • The antibody recognizes both delta 1 and delta 2 but not AMPA, kainate, NMDA, and mGluR1 alpha glutamate receptor subunits based on Western blot analysis of transfected HEK-293 cells [26].
  • These abnormalities are associated with high basal ATP levels but a decreased glucose-induced ATP production (Delta of increment over baseline 0.7 +/- 0.5 or 0.5 +/- 0.3 pmol/islet in islets exposed to glucose or FFA vs. 12.0 +/- 0.6 in control islets, n = 3; P < 0.01) and, as a consequence, with an altered ATP/ADP ratio [27].
  • It was previously found that the 85-kDa protein purified from rat brain using an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3)-immobilized matrix was the delta 1 isoform of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) [28].
  • delta 4-3-Ketosteroid 5 beta-reductase was purified about 230-fold from 100,000 X g supernatant of rat liver homogenate using 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one as substrate throughout [29].
  • In urethane anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats or C57BL/6 mice, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to noninvasively measure the change in retinal oxygen tension (Delta PO(2)) during a carbogen-inhalation challenge [30].

Physical interactions of Dll1

  • Recent data suggest that Notch receptors and their membrane-bound ligands Delta and Serrate are involved in both patterning and cell fate determination during odontogenesis [31].

Regulatory relationships of Dll1


Other interactions of Dll1

  • Notch 1 and Delta were found to be expressed in the neural retina during the period of cell fate determination and differentiation [33].
  • In line with these findings, all three tested COX inhibitors provoked significant and sustained decreases (Delta approximately -20%) in medullary blood flow (MBF), which were similar in magnitude and duration in control animals [34].
  • Staining of the postsynaptic density and membrane of the granule cell-parallel fiber/cartwheel cell spins synapse was most prevalent with delta 1/2 and mGluR1 alpha antibodies [35].
  • Only the highest concentration of IGF-1 elicited an inhibition on Delta FFI in sucrose myocytes [36].
  • The mitochondrial death pathway was suggested to be involved in BITC-induced apoptosis because the treatment of cells with BITC-induced caspase-9-dependent apoptosis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Delta Psi m) alteration [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dll1

  • The 3D structures of the full-length and a C-terminal deletion (Delta C) mutant of Shaker were determined by electron microscopy and single-particle analysis [38].
  • This study examined the electrophysiological consequences of selective activation of delta 1-, delta 2-, or mu-opioid receptors using whole-cell recordings made from visually identified lamina II neurons in thin transverse slices of young adult rat lumbar spinal cord [21].
  • The aortic PCR product was cloned and sequenced and found to represent two novel subunit sequences, designated delta 2 and delta 3 to distinguish them from the previously described delta sequence (now called delta 1) from brain. delta 2 was identical to the predicted delta 1 sequence except for a deletion of 102 base pairs (bp) [39].
  • Real-time whole cell fluorescence video microscopy was utilized to analyze mitochondrial inner membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)), which drives ATP synthesis, in cultured adult sensory neurons [40].
  • In each instance, receptor affinity was diminished by 1,2 unsaturation, but this effect was offset by the greater bioavailability of the delta 1 derivatives on oral administration [41].


  1. Adenovirus encoding vascular endothelial growth factor-D induces tissue-specific vascular patterns in vivo. Byzova, T.V., Goldman, C.K., Jankau, J., Chen, J., Cabrera, G., Achen, M.G., Stacker, S.A., Carnevale, K.A., Siemionow, M., Deitcher, S.R., DiCorleto, P.E. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Endogenous cannabinoids mediate hypotension after experimental myocardial infarction. Wagner, J.A., Hu, K., Bauersachs, J., Karcher, J., Wiesler, M., Goparaju, S.K., Kunos, G., Ertl, G. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Role of central mu, delta-1, and kappa-1 opioid receptors in opioid-induced muscle rigidity in the rat. Vankova, M.E., Weinger, M.B., Chen, D.Y., Bronson, J.B., Motis, V., Koob, G.F. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of spinal delta-1 or delta-2 opioid receptors reduces carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia in the rat. Stewart, P.E., Hammond, D.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. The diurnal rhythm of adenosine levels in the basal forebrain of young and old rats. Murillo-Rodriguez, E., Blanco-Centurion, C., Gerashchenko, D., Salin-Pascual, R.J., Shiromani, P.J. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Cannabinoids prevent the acute hyperthermia and partially protect against the 5-HT depleting effects of MDMA ("Ecstasy") in rats. Morley, K.C., Li, K.M., Hunt, G.E., Mallet, P.E., McGregor, I.S. Neuropharmacology (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of nociception by microinjection of delta-1 and delta-2 opioid receptor ligands in the ventromedial medulla of the rat. Thorat, S.N., Hammond, D.L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Sub-chronic administration of zolpidem affects modifications to rat sleep architecture. Renger, J.J., Dunn, S.L., Motzel, S.L., Johnson, C., Koblan, K.S. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol alters cerebral metabolism in a biphasic, dose-dependent manner in rat brain. Margulies, J.E., Hammer, R.P. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Progesterone receptor and dopamine receptors are required in Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol modulation of sexual receptivity in female rats. Mani, S.K., Mitchell, A., O'Malley, B.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Streaming potential measurements in alphabetagamma-rat epithelial Na+ channel in planar lipid bilayers. Ismailov, I.I., Shlyonsky, V.G., Benos, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Bax affects intracellular Ca2+ stores and induces Ca2+ wave propagation. Carvalho, A.C., Sharpe, J., Rosenstock, T.R., Teles, A.F., Youle, R.J., Smaili, S.S. Cell Death Differ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Distinct thymocyte subsets express the vanilloid receptor VR1 that mediates capsaicin-induced apoptotic cell death. Amantini, C., Mosca, M., Lucciarini, R., Perfumi, M., Morrone, S., Piccoli, M., Santoni, G. Cell Death Differ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Higher efficiency of the liver phosphorylative system in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Palmeira, C.M., Ferreira, F.M., Santos, D.L., Ceiça, R., Suzuki, K., Santos, M.S. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of levodopa on endocannabinoid levels in rat basal ganglia: implications for the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Ferrer, B., Asbrock, N., Kathuria, S., Piomelli, D., Giuffrida, A. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and anandamide enhance the ability of muscimol to induce catalepsy in the globus pallidus of rats. Wickens, A.P., Pertwee, R.G. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacological characterisation of sodium channels in sinoatrial node pacemaking in the rat heart. Létienne, R., Vié, B., Le Grand, B. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation of peripheral delta opioid receptors eliminates cardiac electrical instability in a rat model of post-infarction cardiosclerosis via mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels. Maslov, L.N., Lishmanov, Y.B., Solenkova, N.V., Gross, G.J., Stefano, G.B., Tam, S.W. Life Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of apoptosis in AK-5 tumor cells by a serum factor from tumor rejecting animals: cytochrome c release independent of Bcl-2 and caspases. Anjum, R., Joshi, P., Khar, A. Cell Death Differ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Endogenous activation of mu and delta-1 opioid receptors is required for long-term potentiation induction in the lateral perforant path: dependence on GABAergic inhibition. Bramham, C.R., Sarvey, J.M. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibitory actions of delta 1-, delta 2-, and mu-opioid receptor agonists on excitatory transmission in lamina II neurons of adult rat spinal cord. Glaum, S.R., Miller, R.J., Hammond, D.L. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. The differential expression of 16 NMDA and non-NMDA receptor subunits in the rat spinal cord and in periaqueductal gray. Tölle, T.R., Berthele, A., Zieglgänsberger, W., Seeburg, P.H., Wisden, W. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Ceramide induces cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria. Importance of mitochondrial redox state. Ghafourifar, P., Klein, S.D., Schucht, O., Schenk, U., Pruschy, M., Rocha, S., Richter, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. The sexually differentiated delta 4-3-ketosteroid 5 beta-reductase of rat liver. Purification, characterization, and quantitation. Mode, A., Rafter, I. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Transdifferentiation of mature rat hepatocytes into bile duct-like cells in vitro. Nishikawa, Y., Doi, Y., Watanabe, H., Tokairin, T., Omori, Y., Su, M., Yoshioka, T., Enomoto, K. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry studies suggest that glutamate receptor delta subunits form novel postsynaptic receptor complexes. Mayat, E., Petralia, R.S., Wang, Y.X., Wenthold, R.J. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of ATP production and uncoupling protein-2 in the insulin secretory defect induced by chronic exposure to high glucose or free fatty acids and effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma inhibition. Patanè, G., Anello, M., Piro, S., Vigneri, R., Purrello, F., Rabuazzo, A.M. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression and characterization of an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding domain of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-delta 1. Yagisawa, H., Hirata, M., Kanematsu, T., Watanabe, Y., Ozaki, S., Sakuma, K., Tanaka, H., Yabuta, N., Kamata, H., Hirata, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Purification and characterization of delta 4-3-ketosteroid 5 beta-reductase. Okuda, A., Okuda, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of the early subnormal retinal oxygenation response in experimental diabetes by inducible nitric oxide synthase. Berkowitz, B.A., Luan, H., Gupta, R.R., Pacheco, D., Seidner, A., Roberts, R., Liggett, J., Knoerzer, D.L., Connor, J.R., Du, Y., Kern, T.S., Ito, Y. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Reactivation of Delta-Notch signaling after injury: complementary expression patterns of ligand and receptor in dental pulp. Mitsiadis, T.A., Fried, K., Goridis, C. Exp. Cell Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of delta 1tetrahydrocannabinol on luteinizing hormone release in castrated and hypothalamic deafferented male rats. Puder, M., Nir, I., Siegel, R.A., Weidenfeld, J., Ayalon, D. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. The expression and function of Notch pathway genes in the developing rat eye. Bao, Z.Z., Cepko, C.L. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Intrarenal expression and distribution of cyclooxygenase isoforms in rats with experimental heart failure. Abassi, Z., Brodsky, S., Gealekman, O., Rubinstein, I., Hoffman, A., Winaver, J. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors show unique postsynaptic, presynaptic, and glial localizations in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. Petralia, R.S., Wang, Y.X., Zhao, H.M., Wenthold, R.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Prediabetic insulin resistance is not permissive to the development of cardiac resistance to insulin-like growth factor I in ventricular myocytes. Hintz, K.K., Ren, J. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Involvement of the mitochondrial death pathway in chemopreventive benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis. Nakamura, Y., Kawakami, M., Yoshihiro, A., Miyoshi, N., Ohigashi, H., Kawai, K., Osawa, T., Uchida, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Conformational changes in the C terminus of Shaker K+ channel bound to the rat Kvbeta2-subunit. Sokolova, O., Accardi, A., Gutierrez, D., Lau, A., Rigney, M., Grigorieff, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Identification of novel isoforms of the delta subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Differential expression in rat brain and aorta. Schworer, C.M., Rothblum, L.I., Thekkumkara, T.J., Singer, H.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Insulin enhances mitochondrial inner membrane potential and increases ATP levels through phosphoinositide 3-kinase in adult sensory neurons. Huang, T.J., Verkhratsky, A., Fernyhough, P. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  41. Orally active mineralocorticoid agonists and antagonists: delta 1-derivatives of aldosterone and 18-deoxyaldosterone. Adam, W.R., Funder, J.W., Ulick, S. Endocrinology (1981) [Pubmed]
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