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Gene Review

SOD2  -  superoxide dismutase SOD2

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: YHR008C
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Disease relevance of SOD2

  • In addition to being hypersensitive to oxygen toxicity, strains containing deletions in both the SOD1 (encoding Cu/Zn-SOD) and SOD2 (encoding Mn-SOD) genes are defective in sporulation, are associated with a high mutation rate, and are unable to biosynthesize lysine and methionine [1].
  • The yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) SOD2 (Sodium2) gene was introduced into Arabidopsis under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter [2].
  • Histidine residues have been shown to be important in the function of the E. coli Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NhaA and in the yeast Na(+)/H(+) exchanger sod2 [3].

High impact information on SOD2

  • In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, tolerance to high sodium and lithium concentrations requires the functioning of the sod2, Na+/H+ antiporter [4].
  • In addition, NDI1 overexpression in sod2 background causes cell lethality in both fermentable and semifermentable media [5].
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses two forms of superoxide dismutase (SOD): MnSOD, encoded by SOD2, which is located within the mitochondrial matrix, and CuZnSOD, encoded by SOD1, which is located in both the cytosol and the mitochondrial intermembrane space [6].
  • Hence, manganese appears to be inaccessible to mitochondrial SOD2 in smf2 mutants [7].
  • Treating smf2Delta cells with manganese supplements corrected the SOD2 defect, as did elevating intracellular manganese through mutations in PMR1 [7].

Biological context of SOD2

  • Furthermore, utilizing reporter gene fusion constructs, we monitored the expression of the gamma-glutamylcysteinyl synthetase (encoded by GSH1) and the two superoxide dismutases (encoded by SOD1 and SOD2) during the metabolic transition from fermentation to respiration; and we detected an up-regulation of all three genes during the diauxic shift [8].
  • The Rim15 regulon comprises several gene clusters implicated in the adaptation to respiratory growth, including classical oxidative stress genes such as SOD1 and SOD2, suggesting that the reduced life span of rim15delta cells may be due to their deficiency in oxidative damage prevention [9].
  • Southern- and northern-blot analyses confirmed that SOD2 was transferred into the Arabidopsis genome [2].
  • Induction by paraquat was modest, about 50% for SOD1 and 100% for SOD2; it was apparently independent of the respiratory chain function [10].
  • The regulation of Cu,Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) was investigated by Northern blotting and gene fusions of SOD1 and SOD2 promoters with the beta-galactosidase reporter gene [10].

Anatomical context of SOD2

  • SOD2 activity is greatly diminished in smf2Delta mutants, even though the mature SOD2 polypeptide accumulates to normal levels in mitochondria [7].

Associations of SOD2 with chemical compounds

  • On the other hand, while the lack of Sod2p caused high cell sensitivity to ethanol and heat shock, the absence of Sod1p seemed to be beneficial to the process of acquisition of tolerance to these adverse conditions [11].
  • Although SOD1 acquires its copper through a specific copper trafficking pathway, nothing is known regarding the intracellular manganese trafficking pathway for SOD2 [7].
  • The use of a SOD2::lacZ fusion construct in this study shows that transcription of SOD2 increases 6.5-fold as cells enter stationary phase in rich, glucose medium [12].
  • The ZrSod2-22p of the osmotolerant yeast Z. rouxii has the highest transport capacity for lithium and sodium but, like the SCHIZ: pombe sod2p, it does not recognize K(+) and Rb(+) as substrates [13].
  • Cells lacking the cytosolic Sod1 removed twice as much cadmium as the control strain, while those deficient in the mitochondrial Sod2 exhibited poor metal absorption [14].

Regulatory relationships of SOD2


Other interactions of SOD2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SOD2


  1. Yeast lacking superoxide dismutase. Isolation of genetic suppressors. Liu, X.F., Elashvili, I., Gralla, E.B., Valentine, J.S., Lapinskas, P., Culotta, V.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression of SOD2 increases salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. Gao, X., Ren, Z., Zhao, Y., Zhang, H. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Functional role of polar amino acid residues in Na+/H+ exchangers. Wiebe, C.A., Dibattista, E.R., Fliegel, L. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Na+/H+ antiporter gene, sod2, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hahnenberger, K.M., Jia, Z., Young, P.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Yeast AMID homologue Ndi1p displays respiration-restricted apoptotic activity and is involved in chronological aging. Li, W., Sun, L., Liang, Q., Wang, J., Mo, W., Zhou, B. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Mitochondrial protein oxidation in yeast mutants lacking manganese-(MnSOD) or copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD): evidence that MnSOD and CuZnSOD have both unique and overlapping functions in protecting mitochondrial proteins from oxidative damage. O'Brien, K.M., Dirmeier, R., Engle, M., Poyton, R.O. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Manganese superoxide dismutase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae acquires its metal co-factor through a pathway involving the Nramp metal transporter, Smf2p. Luk, E.E., Culotta, V.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Diauxic shift-induced stress resistance against hydroperoxides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not an adaptive stress response and does not depend on functional mitochondria. Maris, A.F., Assumpção, A.L., Bonatto, D., Brendel, M., Henriques, J.A. Curr. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The novel yeast PAS kinase Rim 15 orchestrates G0-associated antioxidant defense mechanisms. Cameroni, E., Hulo, N., Roosen, J., Winderickx, J., De Virgilio, C. Cell Cycle (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of Cu,Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Galiazzo, F., Labbe-Bois, R. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Acquisition of tolerance against oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pereira, M.D., Eleutherio, E.C., Panek, A.D. BMC Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Stationary-phase regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SOD2 gene is dependent on additive effects of HAP2/3/4/5- and STRE-binding elements. Flattery-O'Brien, J.A., Grant, C.M., Dawes, I.W. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Difference in substrate specificity divides the yeast alkali-metal-cation/H(+) antiporters into two subfamilies. Kinclová, O., Potier, S., Sychrová, H. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of superoxide dismutase deficiency on cadmium stress. Adamis, P.D., Gomes, D.S., Pereira, M.D., Freire de Mesquita, J., Pinto, M.L., Panek, A.D., Eleutherio, E.C. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Heme regulates SOD2 transcription by activation and repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pinkham, J.L., Wang, Z., Alsina, J. Curr. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. The Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strain CBS732 contains only one copy of the HOG1 and the SOD2 genes. Kinclová, O., Potier, S., Sychrová, H. J. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. A screening for high copy suppressors of the sit4 hal3 synthetically lethal phenotype reveals a role for the yeast Nha1 antiporter in cell cycle regulation. Simón, E., Clotet, J., Calero, F., Ramos, J., Ariño, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Caloric restriction augments ROS defense in S. cerevisiae, by a Sir2p independent mechanism. Agarwal, S., Sharma, S., Agrawal, V., Roy, N. Free Radic. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and its gene from Candida albicans. Rhie, G.E., Hwang, C.S., Brady, M.J., Kim, S.T., Kim, Y.R., Huh, W.K., Baek, Y.U., Lee, B.H., Lee, J.S., Kang, S.O. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
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