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Gene Review

DMC1  -  recombinase DMC1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: ISC2, Meiotic recombination protein DMC1, YER179W
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Disease relevance of DMC1


High impact information on DMC1

  • Meiotic recombination requires the meiosis-specific RecA homolog Dmc1 as well as the mitotic RecA homolog Rad51 [2].
  • A protein complex containing Mei5 and Sae3 promotes the assembly of the meiosis-specific RecA homolog Dmc1 [2].
  • Red1 promotes DSB formation in both R- and G-bands and then promotes Dmc1 loading, specifically counteracting disfavoring R-band effects [3].
  • The hop2 mutant arrests at the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase with the RecA-like protein Dmc1 located at numerous sites along synapsed chromosomes [4].
  • Analysis of zip1 mutants shows that Zip1 promotes dissociation of Dmc1 complexes [5].

Biological context of DMC1

  • Analysis of various double mutants suggests that HOP2, MND1, and DMC1 act in the same genetic pathway for the establishment of close juxtaposition between homologous meiotic chromosomes [6].
  • BACKGROUND: DMC1, the meiosis-specific eukaryotic homologue of bacterial recA, is required for completion of meiotic recombination and cell cycle progression past prophase [7].
  • The ability of RAD54 to promote DMC1-independent recombination is proposed to involve suppression of a constraint that normally promotes recombination between homologous chromatids rather than sisters [7].
  • Results presented here demonstrate that the dmc1 and rad51 mutants undergo nearly complete chromosome synapsis, but synaptonemal complex formation is delayed substantially compared with wild type [1].
  • The mei5 and sae3 mutations reduce sporulation, spore viability, and crossing over to the same extent as dmc1 [8].

Anatomical context of DMC1

  • The DMC1 protein was detected in leptotene-to-zygotene spermatocytes, when homolog pairing likely initiates [9].
  • Consistent with a similar role in mammals, Rad1 protein is abundant in testis, and is associated with both synapsed and unsynapsed chromosomes during meiotic prophase I of spermatogenesis, with a staining pattern distinct from that of the recombination proteins Rad51 and Dmc1 [10].

Associations of DMC1 with chemical compounds

  • Cisplatin-induced DSBs restored Rad51/Dmc1 foci and promoted synapsis [11].
  • Calcium ion promotes yeast Dmc1 activity via formation of long and fine helical filaments with single-stranded DNA [12].
  • In addition, Dmc1 catalyzes strand assimilation of ssDNA oligonucleotides into homologous supercoiled duplex DNA in a reaction promoted by ATP or the non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue AMP-PNP [13].

Physical interactions of DMC1

  • Tid1p interacts with recombination enzymes Dmc1p and Rad51p and has an established role in recombination repair [14].

Regulatory relationships of DMC1

  • High copy numbers of RAD54 activate a DMC1-independent mechanism that promotes repair of DSBs by homology-mediated recombination [7].

Other interactions of DMC1

  • Coordinate action of mitotic recA homologs as one functional unit, two functions of RED1, and an interhomolog interaction function of DMC1 are also revealed [15].
  • Curiously, the mitosis-specific checkpoint gene RAD9 is not required for meiotic arrest of dmc1 mutants [16].
  • Also, Dmc1 foci appear early in a tid1/rdh54 mutant [17].
  • Expression of middle sporulation genes, as well as entry into the meiotic divisions, was restored to a dmc1 strain by mutation of RAD17 [18].
  • Taken together, these observations suggest that the Mei5 and Sae3 proteins are accessory factors specific to Dmc1 [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DMC1


  1. Roles for two RecA homologs in promoting meiotic chromosome synapsis. Rockmill, B., Sym, M., Scherthan, H., Roeder, G.S. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. A protein complex containing Mei5 and Sae3 promotes the assembly of the meiosis-specific RecA homolog Dmc1. Hayase, A., Takagi, M., Miyazaki, T., Oshiumi, H., Shinohara, M., Shinohara, A. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Physical and functional interactions among basic chromosome organizational features govern early steps of meiotic chiasma formation. Blat, Y., Protacio, R.U., Hunter, N., Kleckner, N. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The meiosis-specific Hop2 protein of S. cerevisiae ensures synapsis between homologous chromosomes. Leu, J.Y., Chua, P.R., Roeder, G.S. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. RecA homologs Dmc1 and Rad51 interact to form multiple nuclear complexes prior to meiotic chromosome synapsis. Bishop, D.K. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Heterodimeric complexes of Hop2 and Mnd1 function with Dmc1 to promote meiotic homolog juxtaposition and strand assimilation. Chen, Y.K., Leng, C.H., Olivares, H., Lee, M.H., Chang, Y.C., Kung, W.M., Ti, S.C., Lo, Y.H., Wang, A.H., Chang, C.S., Bishop, D.K., Hsueh, Y.P., Wang, T.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. High copy number suppression of the meiotic arrest caused by a dmc1 mutation: REC114 imposes an early recombination block and RAD54 promotes a DMC1-independent DSB repair pathway. Bishop, D.K., Nikolski, Y., Oshiro, J., Chon, J., Shinohara, M., Chen, X. Genes Cells (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The budding yeast mei5 and sae3 proteins act together with dmc1 during meiotic recombination. Tsubouchi, H., Roeder, G.S. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. The mouse RecA-like gene Dmc1 is required for homologous chromosome synapsis during meiosis. Yoshida, K., Kondoh, G., Matsuda, Y., Habu, T., Nishimune, Y., Morita, T. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Human and mouse homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1(+) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD17: linkage to checkpoint control and mammalian meiosis. Freire, R., Murguía, J.R., Tarsounas, M., Lowndes, N.F., Moens, P.B., Jackson, S.P. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The mouse Spo11 gene is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis. Romanienko, P.J., Camerini-Otero, R.D. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Calcium ion promotes yeast Dmc1 activity via formation of long and fine helical filaments with single-stranded DNA. Lee, M.H., Chang, Y.C., Hong, E.L., Grubb, J., Chang, C.S., Bishop, D.K., Wang, T.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dmc1 protein promotes renaturation of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) and assimilation of ssDNA into homologous super-coiled duplex DNA. Hong, E.L., Shinohara, A., Bishop, D.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Recombination protein Tid1p controls resolution of cohesin-dependent linkages in meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kateneva, A.V., Konovchenko, A.A., Guacci, V., Dresser, M.E. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Interhomolog bias during meiotic recombination: meiotic functions promote a highly differentiated interhomolog-only pathway. Schwacha, A., Kleckner, N. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. A meiotic recombination checkpoint controlled by mitotic checkpoint genes. Lydall, D., Nikolsky, Y., Bishop, D.K., Weinert, T. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Tid1/Rdh54 promotes colocalization of rad51 and dmc1 during meiotic recombination. Shinohara, M., Gasior, S.L., Bishop, D.K., Shinohara, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. NDT80 and the meiotic recombination checkpoint regulate expression of middle sporulation-specific genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hepworth, S.R., Friesen, H., Segall, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. DMC1 functions in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiotic pathway that is largely independent of the RAD51 pathway. Dresser, M.E., Ewing, D.J., Conrad, M.N., Dominguez, A.M., Barstead, R., Jiang, H., Kodadek, T. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Recruitment of RecA homologs Dmc1p and Rad51p to the double-strand break repair site initiated by meiosis-specific endonuclease VDE (PI-SceI). Fukuda, T., Ohya, Y. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Dmc1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe plays a role in meiotic recombination. Fukushima, K., Tanaka, Y., Nabeshima, K., Yoneki, T., Tougan, T., Tanaka, S., Nojima, H. Nucleic Acids Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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