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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Chromosome Pairing

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Disease relevance of Chromosome Pairing

  • E. coli RecA protein promotes homologous pairing in two distinguishable phases: synapsis and strand exchange [1].
  • These sites lie in between the core and arm sites recognized by (Tn916)Int, suggesting that the (Tn916)Xis protein enhances excision in a manner similar to the excisionase protein of bacteriophage lambda, serving an architectural role in the stabilization of protein-nucleic acid structures required for strand synapsis [2].

Psychiatry related information on Chromosome Pairing


High impact information on Chromosome Pairing


Biological context of Chromosome Pairing


Anatomical context of Chromosome Pairing

  • Furthermore, detailed cytological examination revealed that chromosomes in cytochalasin-treated oocytes were monovalent while those treated only with cycloheximide were divalent, suggesting that dissociation of the synapsis is a prerequisite for chromosome decondensation after the disappearance of MPF [14].
  • Between Days 11 and 16 post-injection we prepared one testis for immunocytological and the other for histological evaluation, then used antibodies to SCP3 and either RPA, or MLH1 to follow quantitative changes in synapsis and recombination [15].
  • Presence of ST1 in males is not associated with any compromise in the output of the seminiferous epithelium nor with histological or immunocytochemical evidence of increased apoptosis, outcomes predicted for a synapsis checkpoint [16].
  • Furthermore, most, if not all, of the GABA-labeled axon terminals formed symmetric synapsis [17].
  • The following gradient of damaging influence of guanethidine was revealed: sympathetic gnl. cervicothoracicum neurocytes gnl. nodosum afferent neurocytes-neuromuscular synapsis skeletal muscle [18].

Associations of Chromosome Pairing with chemical compounds

  • Cisplatin-induced DSBs restored Rad51/Dmc1 foci and promoted synapsis [19].
  • Conditions that are suboptimal for the formation of the RecA presynaptic filament rendered both the formation of RecA-DNA networks and the subsequent formation of joint molecules sensitive to inhibition by excess ATP or by pyrophosphate when these were added during synapsis [20].
  • EphB1 is a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases that play important roles in diverse biological processes including nervous system development, angiogenesis, and neural synapsis formation and maturation [21].
  • In addition, polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene glycol must also affect another property of recA protein, i.e. self-association, which is required for synapsis and DNA strand exchange [22].
  • We wished to test whether a different, and more stable, synapsis might be achieved if one of the two strands in the synapsable duplex had its domain of guanine residues in a reverse orientation to the rest of the strand, via 5'-5' and 3'-3' linkages [23].

Gene context of Chromosome Pairing

  • Dmc1 and, by inference, Rad51 form complexes before synapsis as monitored by immunostaining for Zip1 protein [24].
  • Furthermore, unlike Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, but like fungi, SPO11 is necessary for normal synapsis in plants [25].
  • Meiotic segregation, synapsis, and recombination checkpoint functions require physical interaction between the chromosomal proteins Red1p and Hop1p [26].
  • Moreover, the ability of the yeast SEP1 gene product to cleave DNA in a G4-DNA-dependent fashion, as well as that of the SGS1 gene product to unwind G4 DNA, has suggested a crucial role for this structure in meiotic synapsis and recombination [27].
  • MEI4, a meiosis-specific yeast gene required for chromosome synapsis [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chromosome Pairing

  • Two-colour immunofluorescence of Cor1 and Syn1 demonstrates that synapsis between homologous cores is initiated at few sites but advances rapidly relative to the establishment of new initiation sites [29].
  • The decrease of meiotic exchanges (crossing over and conversion) in two mutants of Sordaria macrospora correlated strongly with a reduction of chiasmata and of both types of "recombination nodules." Serial section reconstruction electron microscopy was used to compare the synapsis pattern of meiotic prophase I in wild type and mutants [30].


  1. Formation of nascent heteroduplex structures by RecA protein and DNA. Wu, A.M., Kahn, R., DasGupta, C., Radding, C.M. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Xis protein binding to the left arm stimulates excision of conjugative transposon Tn916. Connolly, K.M., Iwahara, M., Clubb, R.T. J. Bacteriol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of bromocriptine on the voluntary consumption of ethanol, water, and solid food by UChA and UChB rats. Mardones, J., Quintanilla, M.E. Alcohol (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. alpha-1-Antichymotrypsin polymorphism in the gene promoter region affects survival and synapsis loss in Alzheimer's disease. Licastro, F., Chiappelli, M., Thal, L.J., Masliah, E. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. Supplement. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Interchangeable parts of the Escherichia coli recombination machinery. Amundsen, S.K., Smith, G.R. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Recombinational DNA double-strand breaks in mice precede synapsis. Mahadevaiah, S.K., Turner, J.M., Baudat, F., Rogakou, E.P., de Boer, P., Blanco-Rodríguez, J., Jasin, M., Keeney, S., Bonner, W.M., Burgoyne, P.S. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Zip3 provides a link between recombination enzymes and synaptonemal complex proteins. Agarwal, S., Roeder, G.S. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Meiotic recombination in C. elegans initiates by a conserved mechanism and is dispensable for homologous chromosome synapsis. Dernburg, A.F., McDonald, K., Moulder, G., Barstead, R., Dresser, M., Villeneuve, A.M. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Male mice defective in the DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2 exhibit abnormal chromosome synapsis in meiosis. Baker, S.M., Bronner, C.E., Zhang, L., Plug, A.W., Robatzek, M., Warren, G., Elliott, E.A., Yu, J., Ashley, T., Arnheim, N., Flavell, R.A., Liskay, R.M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The meiotic checkpoint monitoring synapsis eliminates spermatocytes via p53-independent apoptosis. Odorisio, T., Rodriguez, T.A., Evans, E.P., Clarke, A.R., Burgoyne, P.S. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Close, stable homolog juxtaposition during meiosis in budding yeast is dependent on meiotic recombination, occurs independently of synapsis, and is distinct from DSB-independent pairing contacts. Peoples, T.L., Dean, E., Gonzalez, O., Lambourne, L., Burgess, S.M. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Roles for two RecA homologs in promoting meiotic chromosome synapsis. Rockmill, B., Sym, M., Scherthan, H., Roeder, G.S. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Stable synapsis of homologous DNA molecules mediated by the Escherichia coli RecA protein involves local exchange of DNA strands. Adzuma, K. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of meiotic metaphase by a cytoplasmic maturation-promoting factor during mouse oocyte maturation. Hashimoto, N., Kishimoto, T. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Correlation of meiotic events in testis sections and microspreads of mouse spermatocytes relative to the mid-pachytene checkpoint. Ashley, T., Gaeth, A.P., Creemers, L.B., Hack, A.M., de Rooij, D.G. Chromosoma (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. An unpaired mouse centromere passes consistently through male meiosis and does not significantly compromise spermatogenesis. Mee, P.J., Shen, M.H., Smith, A.G., Brown, W.R. Chromosoma (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Projections from the cat posterior lateral hypothalamus to the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus contain a GABAergic component. De La Roza, C., Martínez-Mena, J., Sánchez-Valle, M.E., Reinoso-Suárez, F. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. The changes in the nervous structures under the chemical sympathectomy with guanethidine. Nozdrachev, A.D., Shilkin, V.V., Accuratov, E.G., Worobjeva, O.B., Obraschikova, M.N., Rumjanceva, T.A., Filimonov, V.J., Sabanov, V.S. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. The mouse Spo11 gene is required for meiotic chromosome synapsis. Romanienko, P.J., Camerini-Otero, R.D. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Ionic inhibition of formation of RecA nucleoprotein networks blocks homologous pairing. Chow, S.A., Radding, C.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. EphB1 associates with Grb7 and regulates cell migration. Han, D.C., Shen, T.L., Miao, H., Wang, B., Guan, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Enhancement of recA protein-promoted DNA strand exchange activity by volume-occupying agents. Lavery, P.E., Kowalczykowski, S.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Cation-regulated self-association of "synapsable" DNA duplexes. Fahlman, R.P., Sen, D. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. RecA homologs Dmc1 and Rad51 interact to form multiple nuclear complexes prior to meiotic chromosome synapsis. Bishop, D.K. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. AtSPO11-1 is necessary for efficient meiotic recombination in plants. Grelon, M., Vezon, D., Gendrot, G., Pelletier, G. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Meiotic segregation, synapsis, and recombination checkpoint functions require physical interaction between the chromosomal proteins Red1p and Hop1p. Woltering, D., Baumgartner, B., Bagchi, S., Larkin, B., Loidl, J., de los Santos, T., Hollingsworth, N.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Yeast meiosis-specific protein Hop1 binds to G4 DNA and promotes its formation. Muniyappa, K., Anuradha, S., Byers, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. MEI4, a meiosis-specific yeast gene required for chromosome synapsis. Menees, T.M., Ross-MacDonald, P.B., Roeder, G.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Synaptonemal complex proteins: occurrence, epitope mapping and chromosome disjunction. Dobson, M.J., Pearlman, R.E., Karaiskakis, A., Spyropoulos, B., Moens, P.B. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Correlation between pairing initiation sites, recombination nodules and meiotic recombination in Sordaria macrospora. Zickler, D., Moreau, P.J., Huynh, A.D., Slezec, A.M. Genetics (1992) [Pubmed]
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