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Gene Review

ARTN  -  artemin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Artemin, ENOVIN, EVN, Enovin, NBN, ...
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Disease relevance of ARTN


High impact information on ARTN

  • CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of artemin in chronic pancreatitis might function as a compensatory upregulation in order to repair neural damage incurred by ongoing pancreatic inflammation [3].
  • Increased levels of artemin mRNA correlated with pain severity, inflammation, perineural inflammatory cell infiltration, neural density and hypertrophy [3].
  • RESULTS: In chronic pancreatitis, artemin and GFRalpha3 were significantly overexpressed and located in smooth muscle cells of arteries, Schwann cells and neural ganglia [3].
  • RESULTS: Artemin and GFRalpha3/RET were both detected at enhanced levels in PDAC compared with normal pancreas, localizing predominantly in hypertrophic nerves and arterial walls, as well as in cancer cells of primary and metastatic lesions [2].
  • To evaluate whether Artemin influences cancer cell proliferation and invasion, MTT-growth and Matrigel-invasion assays were used [2].

Biological context of ARTN


Anatomical context of ARTN

  • To investigate the neuroprotective effects in vivo, lentiviral vectors carrying the cDNA for NBN/ART or GDNF were injected into the striatum and ventral midbrain [6].
  • Artemin (ARTN) is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs) which regulate the development and maintenance of many neuronal populations in the mammalian nervous system [7].
  • Different isoforms of artemin with corresponding different molecular weights were detected in the brain, muscle, testis, ovary, kidney, gut, and gills of zebrafish by Western blot analysis [8].
  • The rostral migration of cells to form the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and the extension of axons along blood vessels involves artemin signaling through Ret and GFRalpha3, and the entry of sympathetic axons into target tissues involves neurotrophins and GDNF [9].
  • These results strongly suggest that AR exerts antinociceptive effects on herpes-related pain through changes of the dynorphin levels in the central nervous system of HSV-inoculated mice [10].

Associations of ARTN with chemical compounds

  • Three weeks after an intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion only about 20% of the nigral DA neurons were left in the control group, while 80-90% of the DA neurons remained in the NBN/ART and GDNF treatment groups, and the striatal TH-immunoreactive innervation was partly spared [6].
  • Artemin crystal structure reveals insights into heparan sulfate binding [11].
  • Intraperitoneal administration of AR at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg scarcely affected beta-endorphin and noradrenaline levels in the central nervous system of HSV-inoculated mice [10].

Other interactions of ARTN

  • The neurotrophic growth factor artemin binds selectively to GDNF family receptor alpha3 (GFRalpha3), forming a molecular complex with the co-receptor RET which mediates downstream signaling [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ARTN


  1. GDNF family receptor complexes are emerging drug targets. Bespalov, M.M., Saarma, M. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. The neurotrophic factor artemin promotes pancreatic cancer invasion. Ceyhan, G.O., Giese, N.A., Erkan, M., Kerscher, A.G., Wente, M.N., Giese, T., Büchler, M.W., Friess, H. Ann. Surg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The neurotrophic factor artemin influences the extent of neural damage and growth in chronic pancreatitis. Ceyhan, G.O., Bergmann, F., Kadihasanoglu, M., Erkan, M., Park, W., Hinz, U., Giese, T., Müller, M.W., Büchler, M.W., Giese, N.A., Friess, H. Gut (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. GDNF family ligands display distinct action profiles on cultured GABAergic and serotonergic neurons of rat ventral mesencephalon. Ducray, A., Krebs, S.H., Schaller, B., Seiler, R.W., Meyer, M., Widmer, H.R. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Tissue distribution of neurturin, persephin and artemin in the human brainstem at fetal, neonatal and adult age. Quartu, M., Serra, M.P., Boi, M., Sestu, N., Lai, M.L., Del Fiacco, M. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. In vivo protection of nigral dopamine neurons by lentiviral gene transfer of the novel GDNF-family member neublastin/artemin. Rosenblad, C., Grønborg, M., Hansen, C., Blom, N., Meyer, M., Johansen, J., Dagø, L., Kirik, D., Patel, U.A., Lundberg, C., Trono, D., Björklund, A., Johansen, T.E. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure of artemin complexed with its receptor GFRalpha3: convergent recognition of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors. Wang, X., Baloh, R.H., Milbrandt, J., Garcia, K.C. Structure (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Artemin-like immunoreactivity in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Lucini, C., Maruccio, L., Tafuri, S., Staiano, N., Castaldo, L. Anat. Embryol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Guidance cues involved in the development of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Young, H.M., Anderson, R.B., Anderson, C.R. Autonomic neuroscience : basic & clinical. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Attenuating effect of artemin on herpes-related pain responses in mice infected with herpes simplex. Asano, K., Asahina, S., Sakai, M., Matsuda, T., Ou, K., Maeda, Y., Hisamitsu, T. In Vivo (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Artemin crystal structure reveals insights into heparan sulfate binding. Silvian, L., Jin, P., Carmillo, P., Boriack-Sjodin, P.A., Pelletier, C., Rushe, M., Gong, B., Sah, D., Pepinsky, B., Rossomando, A. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Distribution of GDNF family receptor alpha3 and RET in rat and human non-neural tissues. Yang, C., Hutto, D., Sah, D.W. J. Mol. Histol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Enovin, a member of the glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family with growth promoting activity on neuronal cells. Existence and tissue-specific expression of different splice variants. Masure, S., Geerts, H., Cik, M., Hoefnagel, E., Van Den Kieboom, G., Tuytelaars, A., Harris, S., Lesage, A.S., Leysen, J.E., Van Der Helm, L., Verhasselt, P., Yon, J., Gordon, R.D. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
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