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Gene Review

Glrx  -  glutaredoxin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: C86710, D13Wsu156e, Glrx1, Glutaredoxin-1, Grx, ...
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Disease relevance of Glrx


High impact information on Glrx


Biological context of Glrx


Anatomical context of Glrx

  • In contrast, there was no increase of GRX mRNA in D-cell, which is a sub-cell line derived from M1 lacking in the capacity of differentiation [12].
  • GRX mRNA also increased in U937 cells differentiated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) [12].
  • Immunohistochemical localization of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in mouse embryos and fetuses [8].
  • It inhibits mitochondrial complex I in motor cortex and lumbosacral cord of male mice through oxidation of critical thiol groups, and glutaredoxin, a thiol disulfide oxido-reductase, helps maintain integrity of complex I. Since incidence of neurolathyrism is less common in women, we examined the mechanisms underlying the gender-related effects [13].
  • Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) mediates recovery of motor neurons from excitotoxic mitochondrial injury [2].

Associations of Glrx with chemical compounds

  • While not active in redox reaction and glutathione binding, SH3BGRL3 may act as an endogenous modulator of glutaredoxin activities by competing, with its fully conserved thioredoxin fold, for binding to yet unknown target proteins [14].
  • Higher constitutive expression of glutaredoxin could potentially contribute to the neuroprotection seen in female mouse following exposure to neurotoxins, such as MPTP [15].
  • Estrogen and neuroprotection: higher constitutive expression of glutaredoxin in female mice offers protection against MPTP-mediated neurodegeneration [15].
  • A thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase component of the GSH system, glutaredoxin (Grx), is involved in the reduction of GSH-based mixed disulfides and participates in a variety of cellular redox pathways [16].
  • Mice treated with acetaminophen exhibited decreased glutathione peroxidase activity, decreased thioltransferase activity, and decreased adenine nucleotide concentrations in the liver [17].

Physical interactions of Glrx


Regulatory relationships of Glrx


Other interactions of Glrx


  1. Mouse glutaredoxin - cDNA cloning, high level expression in E. coli and its possible implication in redox regulation of the DNA binding activity in transcription factor PEBP2. Nakamura, T., Ohno, T., Hirota, K., Nishiyama, A., Nakamura, H., Wada, H., Yodoi, J. Free Radic. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) mediates recovery of motor neurons from excitotoxic mitochondrial injury. Kenchappa, R.S., Diwakar, L., Boyd, M.R., Ravindranath, V. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. PICOT-HD: a highly conserved protein domain that is often associated with thioredoxin and glutaredoxin modules. Isakov, N., Witte, S., Altman, A. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Stable and controllable RNA interference: Investigating the physiological function of glutathionylated actin. Wang, J., Tekle, E., Oubrahim, H., Mieyal, J.J., Stadtman, E.R., Chock, P.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Selenoprotein oxidoreductase with specificity for thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Sun, Q.A., Kirnarsky, L., Sherman, S., Gladyshev, V.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Absolute gene expression patterns of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin redox systems in mouse. Jurado, J., Prieto-Alamo, M.J., Madrid-Rísquez, J., Pueyo, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Generation and function of reactive oxygen species in dendritic cells during antigen presentation. Matsue, H., Edelbaum, D., Shalhevet, D., Mizumoto, N., Yang, C., Mummert, M.E., Oeda, J., Masayasu, H., Takashima, A. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunohistochemical localization of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in mouse embryos and fetuses. Kobayashi, M., Nakamura, H., Yodoi, J., Shiota, K. Antioxid. Redox Signal. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Reaction mechanism and regulation of mammalian thioredoxin/glutathione reductase. Sun, Q.A., Su, D., Novoselov, S.V., Carlson, B.A., Hatfield, D.L., Gladyshev, V.N. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Trypanosoma cruzi carrying a targeted deletion of a Tc52 protein-encoding allele elicits attenuated Chagas' disease in mice. Garzón, E., Borges, M.C., Cordeiro-da-Silva, A., Nacife, V., Meirelles, M.d.e. .N., Guilvard, E., Bosseno, M.F., Guevara, A.G., Brenière, S.F., Ouaissi, A. Immunol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Mitochondrial thioltransferase (glutaredoxin 2) has GSH-dependent and thioredoxin reductase-dependent peroxidase activities in vitro and in lens epithelial cells. Fernando, M.R., Lechner, J.M., L??fgren, S., Gladyshev, V.N., Lou, M.F. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential expression of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin during monocytic differentiation. Takashima, Y., Hirota, K., Nakamura, H., Nakamura, T., Akiyama, K., Cheng, F.S., Maeda, M., Yodoi, J. Immunol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Down-regulation of glutaredoxin by estrogen receptor antagonist renders female mice susceptible to excitatory amino acid mediated complex I inhibition in CNS. Diwakar, L., Kenchappa, R.S., Annepu, J., Saeed, U., Sujanitha, R., Ravindranath, V. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Crystal structure of the glutaredoxin-like protein SH3BGRL3 at 1.6 Angstrom resolution. Nardini, M., Mazzocco, M., Massaro, A., Maffei, M., Vergano, A., Donadini, A., Scartezzini, P., Bolognesi, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Estrogen and neuroprotection: higher constitutive expression of glutaredoxin in female mice offers protection against MPTP-mediated neurodegeneration. Kenchappa, R.S., Diwakar, L., Annepu, J., Ravindranath, V. FASEB J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification and characterization of a new mammalian glutaredoxin (thioltransferase), Grx2. Gladyshev, V.N., Liu, A., Novoselov, S.V., Krysan, K., Sun, Q.A., Kryukov, V.M., Kryukov, G.V., Lou, M.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Acetaminophen-induced oxidation of protein thiols. Contribution of impaired thiol-metabolizing enzymes and the breakdown of adenine nucleotides. Tirmenstein, M.A., Nelson, S.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Lack of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1 does not increase atherosclerosis in C57BL/J6 mice fed a high-fat diet. de Haan, J.B., Witting, P.K., Stefanovic, N., Pete, J., Daskalakis, M., Kola, I., Stocker, R., Smolich, J.J. J. Lipid Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of inducers of drug metabolism on basic hepatic forms of mouse glutathione transferase. Di Simplicio, P., Jensson, H., Mannervik, B. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
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