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Gene Review

Txn1  -  thioredoxin 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Thioredoxin, Trx, Txn
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Disease relevance of Txn1


High impact information on Txn1

  • The results indicate that thionein (T), which is formed when the zinc is removed from Zn-MT, can function as a reducing system for the Msr proteins because of its high content of cysteine residues and that Trx can reduce oxidized T [3].
  • A heat-stable protein has been detected in bovine liver that, in the presence of EDTA, can support the Msr reaction in the absence of either Trx or DTT [3].
  • To develop peptides that exhibit FSH-antagonistic activity at low concentrations, we have constructed a three-dimensional model for FSH, which is based on an alignment of both the beta and the alpha chains of glycoprotein hormones with thioredoxin, for which x-ray diffraction data are available [6].
  • The angiotensin II-stimulated heparin-sensitive kinase could phosphorylate a thioredoxin fusion protein containing the entire AT1A-R cytoplasmic tail (N295 to E359), which lacks consensus phosphorylation sites for GRK1, GRK2, and GRK3 [7].
  • Compared with controls, erythrocyte thioredoxin levels were higher in stage I through III PBC and lower in stage IV patients [4].

Chemical compound and disease context of Txn1


Biological context of Txn1


Anatomical context of Txn1


Associations of Txn1 with chemical compounds

  • Here we demonstrate for the first time that cysteamine increases the expression and nuclear translocation of Egr-1, Ref-1, and Trx, and activates binding of Egr-1 to DNA [19].
  • Overexpression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), an endogenous thioredoxin inhibitor, reduced protein synthesis in response to mechanical strain (89+/-5% reduction, P<0.01), phenylephrine (80+/-3% reduction, P<0.01), or angiotensin II (80+/-4% reduction, P<0.01) [1].
  • Mn-Superoxide dismutase expression was increased 13-fold, and thioredoxin level was elevated 3-fold after lipopolysaccharide challenge [20].
  • However, both mutations resulted in marked decreases in Vmax values when glutathione or a reconstituted thioredoxin cofactor system were used in the assay [21].
  • We propose that the NADPH/GRX/TRX redox regulation mediates a novel signaling pathway of nutrient-induced insulin secretion [22].

Physical interactions of Txn1


Regulatory relationships of Txn1


Other interactions of Txn1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Txn1


  1. Thioredoxin-interacting protein controls cardiac hypertrophy through regulation of thioredoxin activity. Yoshioka, J., Schulze, P.C., Cupesi, M., Sylvan, J.D., MacGillivray, C., Gannon, J., Huang, H., Lee, R.T. Circulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Alpha-adrenergic receptor-stimulated hypertrophy in adult rat ventricular myocytes is mediated via thioredoxin-1-sensitive oxidative modification of thiols on Ras. Kuster, G.M., Pimentel, D.R., Adachi, T., Ido, Y., Brenner, D.A., Cohen, R.A., Liao, R., Siwik, D.A., Colucci, W.S. Circulation (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Thionein can serve as a reducing agent for the methionine sulfoxide reductases. Sagher, D., Brunell, D., Hejtmancik, J.F., Kantorow, M., Brot, N., Weissbach, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutual changes of thioredoxin and nitrosothiols during biliary cirrhosis: results from humans and cholestatic rats. Grattagliano, I., Portincasa, P., Palmieri, V.O., Palasciano, G. Hepatology (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of thioredoxin reductases from Novikoff ascites hepatoma cells and normal liver of rats. Chen, C.C., Moore, E.C., McCall, B.L. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Synthetic peptides based upon a three-dimensional model for the receptor recognition site of follicle-stimulating hormone exhibit antagonistic or agonistic activity at low concentrations. Hage-van Noort, M., Puijk, W.C., Plasman, H.H., Kuperus, D., Schaaper, W.M., Beekman, N.J., Grootegoed, J.A., Meloen, R.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of cytoplasmic tail of the type 1A angiotensin II receptor in agonist- and phorbol ester-induced desensitization. Tang, H., Guo, D.F., Porter, J.P., Wanaka, Y., Inagami, T. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Thioredoxin-dependent enzymatic activation of mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. An intersubunit disulfide bond serves as a redox switch for activation. Nagahara, N., Yoshii, T., Abe, Y., Matsumura, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Protective effects of S-nitrosoglutathione against amyloid beta-peptide neurotoxicity. Ju, T.C., Chen, S.D., Liu, C.C., Yang, D.I. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Temocapril treatment ameliorates autoimmune myocarditis associated with enhanced cardiomyocyte thioredoxin expression. Yuan, Z., Kishimoto, C., Shioji, K., Nakamura, H., Yodoi, J., Sasayama, S. Cardiovasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Hypoxia-ischemia induces thioredoxin expression and nitrotyrosine formation in new-born rat brain. Hattori, I., Takagi, Y., Nozaki, K., Kondo, N., Bai, J., Nakamura, H., Hashimoto, N., Yodoi, J. Redox Rep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Vitamin D(3)-up-regulated protein-1 is a stress-responsive gene that regulates cardiomyocyte viability through interaction with thioredoxin. Wang, Y., De Keulenaer, G.W., Lee, R.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding rat thioredoxin. Tonissen, K.F., Robins, A.J., Wells, J.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Rat endometrial Vdup1 expression: changes related to sensitization for the decidual cell reaction and hormonal control. Simmons, D.G., Kennedy, T.G. Reproduction (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Localization of thioredoxin in the rat brain and functional implications. Lippoldt, A., Padilla, C.A., Gerst, H., Andbjer, B., Richter, E., Holmgren, A., Fuxe, K. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of hydroxylations in biosynthesis of bile acids. Isolation of a protein from rat liver cytosol stimulating reconstituted cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Danielsson, H., Kalles, I., Wikvall, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Synthesis and characterization of a triphenylphosphonium-conjugated peroxidase mimetic. Insights into the interaction of ebselen with mitochondria. Filipovska, A., Kelso, G.F., Brown, S.E., Beer, S.M., Smith, R.A., Murphy, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. The cDNA for the type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase encodes an enzyme manifesting both high Km and low Km activity. Evidence that rat liver and kidney contain a single enzyme which converts thyroxine to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine. Sharifi, J., St Germain, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of cysteamine on redox-sensitive thiol-containing proteins in the duodenal mucosa. Khomenko, T., Deng, X., Jadus, M.R., Szabo, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of glutathione S-transferase isozymes and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase as negative acute-phase proteins in rat liver. Buetler, T.M. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Conserved cysteines in the type 1 deiodinase selenoprotein are not essential for catalytic activity. Croteau, W., Bodwell, J.E., Richardson, J.M., St Germain, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Redox control of exocytosis: regulatory role of NADPH, thioredoxin, and glutaredoxin. Ivarsson, R., Quintens, R., Dejonghe, S., Tsukamoto, K., in 't Veld, P., Renström, E., Schuit, F.C. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. The heat-stable cytosolic factor that promotes glucocorticoid receptor binding to DNA is neither thioredoxin nor ribonuclease. Tienrungroj, W., Pratt, S.E., Grippo, J.F., Holmgren, A., Pratt, W.B. J. Steroid Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Proof that the endogenous, heat-stable glucocorticoid receptor-activating factor is thioredoxin. Grippo, J.F., Holmgren, A., Pratt, W.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of heme-binding protein 23/peroxiredoxin I gene expression by okadaic acid in cultured rat hepatocytes. Immenschuh, S., Iwahara, S., Schwennen, B. DNA Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Post-translational regulation of mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase via a low redox potential cysteine-sulfenate in the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Nagahara, N., Katayama, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. CaBP1, a calcium binding protein of the thioredoxin family, is a resident KDEL protein of the ER and not of the intermediate compartment. Füllekrug, J., Sönnichsen, B., Wünsch, U., Arseven, K., Nguyen Van, P., Söling, H.D., Mieskes, G. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Localization of the thioredoxin system in normal rat kidney. Oberley, T.D., Verwiebe, E., Zhong, W., Kang, S.W., Rhee, S.G. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Redox control of neuronal damage during brain ischemia after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat: immunohistochemical and hybridization studies of thioredoxin. Takagi, Y., Tokime, T., Nozaki, K., Gon, Y., Kikuchi, H., Yodoi, J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Thioredoxin messenger ribonucleic acid is regulated by estradiol in the rat uterus. Sahlin, L., Holmgren, A., Eriksson, H. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
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