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Chemical Compound Review

Aprocarb     (2-propan-2-yloxyphenyl) N-methylcarbamate

Synonyms: Propotox, propoxur, Arprocarb, Blattanex, Blattosep, ...
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Disease relevance of Aprocarb


Psychiatry related information on Aprocarb


High impact information on Aprocarb

  • This genetic sexing system utilizes propoxur (o-isopropoxyphenyl methyl-carbamate) susceptibility as a recessive conditional lethal a T(Y:2R) translocation, and an In(2R)inversion [9].
  • The propoxur resistance allele (dominant) was linked to the Y chromosome via a radiation-induced translocation, and genetic recombination was suppressed by inversions [9].
  • In this report, two mammalian cell cultures from respiratory tissues [a hamster lung fibroblast, V79, and a primary rat tracheal epithelial cell (RTE)], were used to investigate the genotoxicity of propoxur and NP [10].
  • However, it inhibited gap-junctional intercellular communication in V79 cells, which indicates that propoxur could act through some epigenetic mechanisms, such as tumor promotion or cell proliferation, in the multiple process of chemical carcinogenesis [10].
  • All animals are killed by this concentration of propoxur, indicating that only AChE1 fulfills the physiological function of neurotransmitter hydrolysis at synapses [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Aprocarb


Biological context of Aprocarb


Anatomical context of Aprocarb


Associations of Aprocarb with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Aprocarb

  • The study area was in El Salvador, Central America, and antimalarial activities consisted of the residual application of the pesticide, propoxur, and drug distribution through a combination of active and passive case detection [26].
  • This general behavior was in agreement with the presence of an enzymatic system (S10 fraction) in Vicia roots capable of metabolizing or activating the propoxur [17].
  • AChE from susceptible ticks had almost no activity at this concentration of propoxur whereas AChE from resistant ticks had 67% of its potential activity [27].
  • The administration of iso-OMPA followed by propoxur elicited inhibition of AChE to a critical level and produced severe intoxication [28].
  • These results suggest that tolerance to propoxur is not mediated by a decrease of cholinergic receptors, as reported for other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, but possibly by an enhancement of its metabolism [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aprocarb


  1. Mitogenic effects of propoxur on male rat bladder urothelium. Cohen, S.M., Cano, M., Johnson, L.S., StJohn, M.K., Asamoto, M., Garland, E.M., Thyssen, J.H., Sangha, G.K., van Goethem, D.L. Carcinogenesis (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Carcinogenicity and co-carcinogenicity studies on propoxur in mouse skin. Shukla, Y., Baqar, S.M., Mehrotra, N.K. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Synergism between insecticides permethrin and propoxur occurs through activation of presynaptic muscarinic negative feedback of acetylcholine release in the insect central nervous system. Corbel, V., Stankiewicz, M., Bonnet, J., Grolleau, F., Hougard, J.M., Lapied, B. Neurotoxicology (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Acute toxicity of propoxur on carbohydrate metabolism of Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). Srivastava, A.K., Singh, N.N. Toxicol. Lett. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Modeling the influence of intermittent rain events on long-term fate and transport of organic air pollutants. Jolliet, O., Hauschild, M. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Acute behavioral toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in adult rats. Ruppert, P.H., Cook, L.L., Dean, K.F., Reiter, L.W. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Nutritional status and insecticide tolerance in German cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blattellidae). Kramer, R.D., Koehler, P.G., Patterson, R.S., Slansky, F. J. Econ. Entomol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of sublethal propoxur exposure on male German cockroaches (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) and their feeding behavior. Kramer, R.D., Koehler, P.G., Patterson, R.S., Slansky, F. J. Econ. Entomol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic method for the preferential elimination of females of anopheles albimanus. Seawright, J.A., Kaiser, P.E., Dame, D.A., Lofgren, C.S. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Genotoxicity of propoxur and its N-nitroso derivative in mammalian cells. Wang, T.C., Chiou, J.M., Chang, Y.L., Hu, M.C. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Existence of two acetylcholinesterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae). Bourguet, D., Raymond, M., Fournier, D., Malcolm, C.A., Toutant, J.P., Arpagaus, M. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns. Whyatt, R.M., Barr, D.B., Camann, D.E., Kinney, P.L., Barr, J.R., Andrews, H.F., Hoepner, L.A., Garfinkel, R., Hazi, Y., Reyes, A., Ramirez, J., Cosme, Y., Perera, F.P. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of subacute feeding of carbaryl on mixed function oxidase and on acute toxicity of parathion and propoxur in rats. Nesković, N.K. Environmental research. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessment of mutagenic potential of propoxur and its modulation by indole-3-carbinol. Agrawal, R.C., Mehrotra, N. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential responses of eight cyanobacterial and green algal species, to carbamate insecticides. Ma, J., Lu, N., Qin, W., Xu, R., Wang, Y., Chen, X. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparative in vitro-in vivo percutaneous absorption of the pesticide propoxur. van de Sandt, J.J., Meuling, W.J., Elliott, G.R., Cnubben, N.H., Hakkert, B.C. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes induced by propoxur following plant activation by Vicia faba. Gómez-Arroyo, S., Calderón-Segura, M.E., Villalobos-Pietrini, R. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Determination of 2-isopropoxyphenol in urine by capillary gas chromatography and mass-selective detection. Leenheers, L.H., van Breugel, D.C., Ravensberg, J.C., Meuling, W.J., Jongen, M.J. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Species-specific cutaneous biotransformation of the pesticide propoxur during percutaneous absorption in vitro. van de Sandt, J.J., Rutten, A.A., van Ommen, B. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Stability studies of propoxur herbicide in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. Sun, L., Lee, H.K. Journal of chromatography. A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Affinity and carbamylation rate constants of propoxur in reaction with erythrocyte and serum cholinesterase. Iverson, F. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Prenatal insecticide exposures and birth weight and length among an urban minority cohort. Whyatt, R.M., Rauh, V., Barr, D.B., Camann, D.E., Andrews, H.F., Garfinkel, R., Hoepner, L.A., Diaz, D., Dietrich, J., Reyes, A., Tang, D., Kinney, P.L., Perera, F.P. Environ. Health Perspect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Genotoxicity of the pesticide propoxur and its nitroso derivative, NO-propoxur, on human lymphocytes in vitro. Gonzalez Cid, M., Loria, D., Matos, E. Mutat. Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Biomarkers in assessing residential insecticide exposures during pregnancy and effects on fetal growth. Whyatt, R.M., Camann, D., Perera, F.P., Rauh, V.A., Tang, D., Kinney, P.L., Garfinkel, R., Andrews, H., Hoepner, L., Barr, D.B. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Assessment of the ability of propoxur, methomyl, and aldicarb, three carbamate insecticides, to induce micronuclei in vitro in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in vivo in BALB/c mice. Wei, L.Y., Chao, J.S., Hong, C.C. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. The seroepidemiology of malaria in Middle America. V. Antibody responses in an indicator population from an endemic area with attack phase antimalaria activities. Warren, M., Collins, W.E., Jeffery, G.M., Skinner, J.C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Detecting resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, with a propoxur-based biochemical test. Baxter, G.D., Green, P., Stuttgen, M., Barker, S.C. Exp. Appl. Acarol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Toxic interaction of tetraisopropylpyrophosphoramide and propoxur: some insights into the mechanisms. Gupta, R.C., Kadel, W.L. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Tolerance to the carbamate insecticide propoxur. Costa, L.G., Hand, H., Schwab, B.W., Murphy, S.D. Toxicology (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Field evaluation of methods for estimating carbamate resistance in Anopheles albimanus mosquitos from a microplate assay for insensitive acetylcholinesterase. Cordón-Rosales, C., Beach, R.F., Brogdon, W.G. Bull. World Health Organ. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Fiber optic monitoring of carbamate pesticides using porous glass with covalently bound chlorophenol red. Xavier, M.P., Vallejo, B., Marazuela, M.D., Moreno-Bondi, M.C., Baldini, F., Falai, A. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Volatility of propoxur from different surface materials commonly found in homes. Kuo, H.W., Lee, H.M. Chemosphere (1999) [Pubmed]
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