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Chemical Compound Review

acephate     N-(methoxy-methylsulfanyl...

Synonyms: Acephat, Orthene, Ortran, Ortril, LUCID, ...
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Disease relevance of Ortril

  • In contrast, methamidophos pretreatment of houseflies does not alter the acephate-induced toxicity and brain AChE inhibition [1].
  • The mice were administered orally with doses ranging from 0.28 to 8.96 mg/kg body weight (b. wt.) of chloropyriphos and 12.25 to 392.00 mg/kg b.wt. of acephate [2].
  • When tested using this diet, acephate, a Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin formulation and rotenone reproducibly showed insecticidal activity against the larvae, while neem oil and scabequinone deterred the larval feeding effectively [3].
  • The aim of this work was to study the ability of the organophosphate insecticide acephate to alter some biochemical markers of effect related non-genetic cocarcinogenesis [4].
  • Airborne contact dermatitis caused by the pesticide acephate [5].

High impact information on Ortril


Chemical compound and disease context of Ortril


Biological context of Ortril

  • It is also proposed that the ED site in cockroach-AChE may be situated in or adjacent to the active site and, therefore, acephate may be bound to the ED site such that the phosphate moiety of acephate interacts with the enzyme's "esteratic" site [13].
  • The genotoxic potential of asataf (acephate) was evaluated by a battery of in vivo tests: bone marrow chromosome aberrations, micronucleus, sperm-shape abnormality and dominant lethal tests in mice [14].
  • This study also indicated that the ED site in rat-AChE may be peripheral to the active site, and that the binding of acephate to this site prevented the phosphorylation by methamidophos of the rat-AChE [13].
  • However, solubilization did not alter the kinetics of inhibition of rat AChE by methamidophos or the kinetics of inhibition of cockroach AChE by acephate or methamidophos [15].
  • A range finding study confirmed the LD50 level for acephate was approximately 800 mg/kg [16].

Anatomical context of Ortril


Associations of Ortril with other chemical compounds

  • Doses of chlorpyrifos, parathion, acephate, and trichlorfon that inhibited AChE >70% were administered to the embryos [21].
  • Difference absorption spectrum of cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of acephate (N-acetyl O,S-dimethyl thiophosphoramide) [22].
  • Our data indicate that AP inhibited both SOD and CHE to a maximum of 91 and 87%, while MH inhibited both SOD and ALAD to a maximum 78 and 90% [23].
  • Corticosterone concentration and the immune cell composition were measured in rats exposed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection to different doses (10-500 mg kg(-1)) of acephate (Ace) and 250 micro g kg(-1) of interleukin 1 (IL-1), either alone or in combination [24].
  • This work aimed to investigate whether the insecticide acephate (125 or 250 mg/kg b.w.) or diflubenzuron (752 or 1075 mg/kg b.w.), two of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, impairs CYP-linked murine metabolism in liver, kidney and lung microsomes after repeated (daily, for three consecutive days) i.p. administration [25].

Gene context of Ortril


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ortril


  1. Acephate insecticide toxicity: safety conferred by inhibition of the bioactivating carboxyamidase by the metabolite methamidophos. Mahajna, M., Quistad, G.B., Casida, J.E. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Assessment of genotoxic effects of chloropyriphos and acephate by the comet assay in mice leucocytes. Rahman, M.F., Mahboob, M., Danadevi, K., Saleha Banu, B., Grover, P. Mutat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Evaluation of calcium-alginate gel as an artificial diet medium for bioassays on common cutworms. Morimoto, M., Matsuda, K., Ohta, Y., Ihara, T., Komai, K. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular non-genetic biomarkers of effect related to acephate cocarcinogenesis: sex- and tissue-dependent induction or suppression of murine CYPs. Paolini, M., Pozzetti, L., Sapone, A., Mesirca, R., Perocco, P., Mazzullo, M., Cantelli-Forti, G. Cancer Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Airborne contact dermatitis caused by the pesticide acephate. Nakamura, M., Miyachi, Y. Contact Derm. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Augmented hydrolysis of diisopropyl fluorophosphate in engineered mutants of phosphotriesterase. Watkins, L.M., Mahoney, H.J., McCulloch, J.K., Raushel, F.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Determination of polar organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables and fruits using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: selection of extraction solvent. Mol, H.G., van Dam, R.C., Steijger, O.M. Journal of chromatography. A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced activation of the immune system in control rats and rats chronically exposed to a low level of the organothiophosphate insecticide, acephate. Singh, A.K., Jiang, Y. Toxicology and industrial health. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. QSAR for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and toxicity of two classes of phosphoramidothioates. Spassova, D.P., Singh, A.K. SAR and QSAR in environmental research. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Acute toxicity of aluminium chloride, acephate, and their coexposure in male Wistar rat. Kumar, S. International journal of toxicology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of a broad spectrum and biorational insecticides on parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). McCravy, K.W., Dalusky, M.J., Berisford, C.W. J. Econ. Entomol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of various insecticides on the development of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Takada, Y., Kawamura, S., Tanaka, T. J. Econ. Entomol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular properties and inhibition kinetics of acetylcholinesterase obtained from rat brain and cockroach ganglion. Singh, A.K. Toxicology and industrial health. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Studies on the genotoxicity of asataf (acephate), an organophosphate insecticide, in a mammalian in vivo system. Behera, B.C., Bhunya, S.P. Mutat. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular properties and inhibition kinetics of acetylcholinesterase obtained from rat brain and cockroach ganglion. Singh, A.K. Toxicology and industrial health. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase in chickens treated with acephate. Wilson, B.W., Henderson, J.D., Kellner, T.P., McEuen, S.F., Griffis, L.C., Lai, J.C. Neurotoxicology (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Kinetic analysis of inhibition of brain and red blood cell acetylcholinesterase and plasma cholinesterase by acephate or methamidophos. Singh, A.K. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Reproductive toxicology of acephate in male mice. Farag, A.T., Eweidah, M.H., El-Okazy, A.M. Reprod. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytotoxic activity and transformation of BALB/c 3T3 cells in vitro by the insecticide acephate. Perocco, P., Del Ciello, C., Colacci, A., Pozzetti, L., Paolini, M., Cantelli-Forti, G., Grilli, S. Cancer Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of the insecticide acephate on electron transfer in bovine heart mitochondria. Ando, M., Wakamatsu, K. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of oxime-initiated reactivation of organophosphorous-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in brains of avian embryos. Lesser, J., Blodgett, D., Ehrich, M. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Difference absorption spectrum of cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of acephate (N-acetyl O,S-dimethyl thiophosphoramide). Ando, M., Wakamatsu, K. Toxicol. Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparative inhibition of enzymes of human erythrocytes and plasma in vitro by agricultural chemicals. Dowla, H.A., Panemangalore, M., Byers, M.E. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunotoxicity of acute acephate exposure in control or IL-1-challenged rats: correlation between the immune cell composition and corticosteroid concentration in blood. Singh, A.K., Jiang, Y. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. CYP superfamily perturbation by diflubenzuron or acephate in different tissues of CD1 mice. Sapone, A., Pozzetti, L., Canistro, D., Broccoli, M., Bronzetti, G., Potenza, G., Affatato, A., Biagi, G.L., Cantelli-Forti, G., Paolini, M. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Acute effects of acephate and methamidophos and interleukin-1 on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in and release from the hypothalamus in vitro. Singh, A.K. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of oxidant stress and antioxidant protection in acephate-induced renal tubular cytotoxicity. Poovala, V.S., Kanji, V.K., Tachikawa, H., Salahudeen, A.K. Toxicol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of the organophosphorus insecticide acephate. Lee, J.K., Ahn, K.C., Stoutamire, D.W., Gee, S.J., Hammock, B.D. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Genotoxic potential of acephate technical: in vitro and in vivo effects. Carver, J.H., Bootman, J., Cimino, M.C., Esber, H.J., Kirby, P., Kirkhart, B., Wong, Z.A., MacGregor, J.A. Toxicology (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Adsorption and mobility of acephate in soils. Sánchez-Camazano, M., Gonzalez-Pozuelo, J.M., Sanchez-Martin, M.J., Crisanto, T. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1994) [Pubmed]
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