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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Drug Costs

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Disease relevance of Drug Costs


Psychiatry related information on Drug Costs

  • CONCLUSION: Pharmacoeconomic analyses, based on modelled data excluding drug costs, indicate that rivastigmine completely or partially offsets the costs of treatment by delaying cognitive decline and the time to institutionalisation in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease [6].

High impact information on Drug Costs

  • Following discharge, however, there were no significant differences in graft survival, total charges ($29,716 vs $34,434), the number of readmissions, the total number of days hospitalized, or physician charges, although cyclosporine was associated with higher drug costs ($3885 vs $373) [7].
  • Additionally, clodronate is not available in the United States. The choice between pamidronate and zoledronic acid will depend on choosing between the higher drug cost of zoledronic acid, with its shorter, more convenient infusion time (15 minutes), versus the less expensive drug, pamidronate, with its longer infusion time (2 hours) [8].
  • The overall most therapeutically favorable regimen in this trial was 5-FU given with low-dose leucovorin; fortuitously, this regimen is associated with very low drug cost [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab plus methotrexate for 54 weeks for rheumatoid arthritis should be cost-effective with its clinical benefit providing good value for the drug cost, especially when including productivity losses [10].
  • In-hospital cost, including professional and study drug costs, was $12,145 +/- 5,882 with placebo versus $12,230 +/- 5,527 with tirofiban (p = 0.75) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Drug Costs

  • Guidelines for the use of acyclovir in suspected encephalitis are given aimed at minimizing the drug cost whilst still protecting all cases of presumed HSE [12].
  • Given the potential of iatrogenic transmission of HIV and the advantages in reduced staff time and drug costs, the results clearly justify the replacement of streptomycin with ethambutol in Tanzania for new patients receiving an ambulatory rifampicin-containing regimen [13].

Biological context of Drug Costs

  • CONCLUSIONS: For this patient group, use of inhalation anaesthesia reduced drug costs by half and shortened emergence times compared to target controlled infusion with propofol with equal perioperative patient conditions [14].

Anatomical context of Drug Costs

  • METHODS: Preferences among patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease for treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or streptokinase (SK) for AMI were determined using a questionnaire presenting GUSTO-1 trial and drug cost data [15].

Associations of Drug Costs with chemical compounds

  • Sensitivity analysis showed that low-molecular-weight heparin is more costly if drug costs are increased by 1.5-fold (ie, the cost of tinzaparin is increased from $6 per day to $8.82 per day or more) [16].
  • The mean antiemetic drug cost per patient was significantly greater for the ondansetron group ($47.56 vs $2.47; P<.001) [17].
  • Total antimicrobial costs were estimated by summing drug costs, using average wholesale price for oral agents and institutional acquisition prices for parenteral agents, plus the costs associated with preparation and administration of parenteral therapy [18].
  • The excess exposure to haloperidol alone resulted in 16.3% of the overall neuroactive drug costs [19].
  • The drug cost of low-molecular-weight heparin (tinzaparin) was $6 per day and for warfarin was $0.32 per day [16].

Gene context of Drug Costs

  • Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists or blocking agents represent a major advance in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but their use raises economic concerns because of the high drug cost [20].
  • These utilisation data imply annual drug costs in the range of $US 480,000 to $US 3,600,000 for TNF antagonists for RA per 1 million population [20].
  • Treating appropriate patients in accordance with these trials would have saved 20 (AIRE), 3 (SAVE), 4 (GISSI-3) and 5 (ISIS-4) lives each year in Nottingham at a drug cost of 5400 pounds, 33 pounds 791, 2730 pounds, and 4116 pounds per life per year saved respectively [21].
  • For IFG subjects, average cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization costs were reduced by $4,478, which offset 74% of the drug cost [22].
  • The annual drug cost of epilepsy treatment using phenobarbitone was 11 US dollars [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Drug Costs


  1. Cost-effectiveness of gemfibrozil for coronary heart disease patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: the Department of Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial. Nyman, J.A., Martinson, M.S., Nelson, D., Nugent, S., Collins, D., Wittes, J., Fye, C.L., Wilt, T.J., Robins, S.J., Bloomfield Rubins, H. Arch. Intern. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Results of a pilot pharmacotherapy quality improvement program using fixed-dose, combination amlodipine/benazepril antihypertensive therapy in a long-term care setting. Sapienza, S., Sacco, P., Floyd, K., DiCesare, J., Doan, Q.D. Clinical therapeutics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Secondary health service care and second line drug costs of early inflammatory polyarthritis in Norfolk, UK. Cooper, N.J., Mugford, M., Scott, D.G., Barrett, E.M., Symmons, D.P. J. Rheumatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Early prediction of nonresponders to treatment with interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Liu, L.W., Tomlinson, G., Mazzulli, T., Murray, A., Heathcote, J. Can. J. Gastroenterol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative role of omeprazole in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Skoutakis, V.A., Joe, R.H., Hara, D.S. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Rivastigmine. A pharmacoeconomic review of its use in Alzheimer's disease. Lamb, H.M., Goa, K.L. PharmacoEconomics. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The association of cyclosporine with the 1-year costs of cadaver-donor kidney transplants. Showstack, J., Katz, P., Amend, W., Salvatierra, O. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guidelines: the role of bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma. Berenson, J.R., Hillner, B.E., Kyle, R.A., Anderson, K., Lipton, A., Yee, G.C., Biermann, J.S. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Biochemical modulation of fluorouracil: evidence of significant improvement of survival and quality of life in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Poon, M.A., O'Connell, M.J., Moertel, C.G., Wieand, H.S., Cullinan, S.A., Everson, L.K., Krook, J.E., Mailliard, J.A., Laurie, J.A., Tschetter, L.K. J. Clin. Oncol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of 54 weeks of infliximab for rheumatoid arthritis. Wong, J.B., Singh, G., Kavanaugh, A. Am. J. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Economic impact of GPIIB/IIIA blockade after high-risk angioplasty: results from the RESTORE trial. Randomized Efficacy Study of Tirofiban for Outcomes and Restenosis. Weintraub, W.S., Culler, S., Boccuzzi, S.J., Cook, J.R., Kosinski, A.S., Cohen, D.J., Burnette, J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The use of acyclovir in suspected encephalitis. Gleadle, J., Dixon, C., Brown, M.M., Schon, F. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Impact of the change from an injectable to a fully oral regimen on patient adherence to ambulatory tuberculosis treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Chum, H.J., Ilmolelian, G., Rieder, H.L., Msangi, J., Mwinyi, N., Zwahlen, M., Enarson, D.A., Ipuge, Y.A. Tuber. Lung Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhalation anaesthesia is cost-effective for ambulatory surgery: a clinical comparison with propofol during elective knee arthroscopy. Dolk, A., Cannerfelt, R., Anderson, R.E., Jakobsson, J. European journal of anaesthesiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Patient preferences for thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Stanek, E.J., Cheng, J.W., Peeples, P.J., Simko, R.J., Spinler, S.A. Medical decision making : an international journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin vs warfarin for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis after hip or knee implantation. An economic perspective. Hull, R.D., Raskob, G.E., Pineo, G.F., Feldstein, W., Rosenbloom, D., Gafni, A., Green, D., Feinglass, J., Trowbridge, A.A., Elliott, C.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Efficacy of ondansetron and prochlorperazine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after total hip replacement or total knee replacement procedures: a randomized, double-blind, comparative trial. Chen, J.J., Frame, D.G., White, T.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Variations in antimicrobial use and cost in more than 2,000 patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Gilbert, K., Gleason, P.P., Singer, D.E., Marrie, T.J., Coley, C.M., Obrosky, D.S., Lave, J.R., Kapoor, W.N., Fine, M.J. Am. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmaco-epidemiology in 136 hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Zito, J.M., Craig, T.J., Wanderling, J., Siegel, C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Criteria for TNF-targeted therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: estimates of the number of patients potentially eligible. Kvien, T.K., Uhlig, T., Kristiansen, I.S. Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. ACE for whom? Implications for clinical practice of post-infarct trials. Walsh, J.T., Gray, D., Keating, N.A., Cowley, A.J., Hampton, J.R. British heart journal. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular resource utilization in impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. Findings from the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Herman, W.H., Alexander, C.M., Cook, J.R., Boccuzzi, S.J., Musliner, T.A., Pedersen, T.R., Kjekshus, J., Pyörälä, K. Diabetes Care (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Cost of epilepsy in patients attending a secondary-level hospital in India. Krishnan, A., Sahariah, S.U., Kapoor, S.K. Epilepsia (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. States' control of prescription drug spending: a heterogeneous approach. Morden, N.E., Sullivan, S.D. Health affairs (Project Hope) (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Therapeutic drug monitoring of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors influences clinical dosing strategies and reduces drug costs in depressed elderly patients. Lundmark, J., Bengtsson, F., Nordin, C., Reis, M., Wålinder, J. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. A cost comparison of methohexital and propofol for ambulatory anesthesia. Sun, R., Watcha, M.F., White, P.F., Skrivanek, G.D., Griffin, J.D., Stool, L., Murphy, M.T. Anesth. Analg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Antiemetic efficacy of prophylactic dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) vs ondansetron (Zofran): a randomized, prospective trial inpatients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Kothari, S.N., Boyd, W.C., Bottcher, M.L., Lambert, P.J. Surgical endoscopy. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Cost comparison between three different general anaesthetic techniques for elective arthroscopy of the knee. Heidvall, M., Hein, A., Davidson, S., Jakobsson, J. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (2000) [Pubmed]
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