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MeSH Review

Drug Monitoring

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Disease relevance of Drug Monitoring


Psychiatry related information on Drug Monitoring


High impact information on Drug Monitoring

  • Intoxication due to negative canrenone interference in digoxin drug monitoring [8].
  • Immediate anticonvulsive drug monitoring in management of epilepsy [9].
  • This disposable device for theophylline monitoring, which can be done within 15 min at the patient's side without instruments, is sufficiently accurate to replace laboratory analysis for routine therapeutic drug monitoring [10].
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can detect abnormal plasma levels and is therefore useful in optimizing nelfinavir therapy in HIV-infected children [11].
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring of busulfan and pharmacokinetic dose adjustments appear to be useful in reducing the incidence of VOD in patients receiving this agent [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Drug Monitoring


Biological context of Drug Monitoring


Anatomical context of Drug Monitoring


Associations of Drug Monitoring with chemical compounds

  • While the marked degree of variability observed suggests a potential role for therapeutic drug monitoring in optimizing p.o. methotrexate therapy, the critical time points to monitor, the therapeutic and toxic ranges, and the intrapatient consistency of absorption must be defined before it will be practical and useful [27].
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring may thus play an important role in adjusting the dose and schedule of piritrexim in future trials [28].
  • Guidelines for folate supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate: comment on the guidelines for monitoring drug therapy [29].
  • The authors identified bipolar patients using lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine (N = 718) and then examined the patient demographic, diagnostic, and service use variables associated with therapeutic drug monitoring [30].
  • METHOD: The authors prospectively investigated 153 patients with schizophrenia who received clozapine (N = 100) or haloperidol (N = 53) in a drug monitoring program [31].

Gene context of Drug Monitoring

  • In addition, the results indicate that inhibition of P-gp activity in normal tissues by effective modulators, and the physiological and pharmacological consequences of this treatment, cannot be predicted based on plasma drug monitoring alone [32].
  • Patients on everolimus who have problems with absorption, who take concurrent cytochrome P450 inhibitors or inducers, or are noncompliant will attain the greatest benefit from drug monitoring [33].
  • This assay will expedite pharmacokinetic studies and the therapeutic drug monitoring of rofecoxib and possibly other COX-2 inhibitors [34].
  • This study points toward a limited information value of CYP2D6 genotyping in the context of therapeutic drug monitoring of perphenazine [35].
  • Population pharmacokinetic parameters of vancomycin (VCM) in Japanese adult patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were estimated using 1253 items of serum concentration data from 190 patients obtained in routine drug monitoring [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Drug Monitoring

  • CONCLUSIONS: Mycophenolic acid AUC(0-12) is predicted by serum albumin and creatinine after kidney transplantation, and the AUC(0-12) may be determined during the early posttransplant period while the patient remains hospitalized with use of a limited sampling strategy to facilitate therapeutic drug monitoring [37].
  • Large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics after oral administration has been reported; therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring of busulfan may decrease the incidence of drug-related toxicity (for example, hepatic venoocclusive disease) and may also improve therapeutic efficacy [38].
  • During phase I/II clinical trials of sirolimus (rapamycin; SRL), therapeutic drug monitoring was performed with a multistep liquid-liquid extraction of 1-mL aliquots of whole blood followed by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet detection [39].
  • This MEKC method could provide a simple and efficient therapeutic drug monitoring method for antiepileptic drugs, especially in patients treated with a combination of zonisamide and other antiepileptic drugs [40].
  • In conclusion, this new, more rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay system can be used to measure EPO levels in sera from normal human subjects and patients with several types of anemia, and should also be very useful in therapeutic drug monitoring of patients receiving EPO from various commercial sources [41].


  1. Busulfan bioavailability. Hassan, M., Ljungman, P., Bolme, P., Ringdén, O., Syrůcková, Z., Békàssy, A., Starý, J., Wallin, I., Kållberg, N. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of methods for monitoring drug resistance in chronic hepatitis B patients during lamivudine therapy based on mass spectrometry and reverse hybridization. Kim, H.S., Han, K.H., Ahn, S.H., Kim, E.O., Chang, H.Y., Moon, M.S., Chung, H.J., Yoo, W., Kim, S.O., Hong, S.P. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Furosemide-induced adverse reactions in cirrhosis of the liver. Naranjo, C.A., Pontigo, E., Valdenegro, C., González, G., Ruiz, I., Busto, U. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Low-dose monitored mitotane treatment achieves the therapeutic range with manageable side effects in patients with adrenocortical cancer. Terzolo, M., Pia, A., Berruti, A., Osella, G., Alì, A., Carbone, V., Testa, E., Dogliotti, L., Angeli, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Fluvoxamine augmentation of olanzapine in chronic schizophrenia: pharmacokinetic interactions and clinical effects. Hiemke, C., Peled, A., Jabarin, M., Hadjez, J., Weigmann, H., Härtter, S., Modai, I., Ritsner, M., Silver, H. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Carbamazepine and valproate monotherapy: feasibility, relative safety and efficacy, and therapeutic drug monitoring in manic disorder. Vasudev, K., Goswami, U., Kohli, K. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The use of plasma levels to optimize methadone maintenance treatment. Loimer, N., Schmid, R. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Intoxication due to negative canrenone interference in digoxin drug monitoring. Steimer, W., Müller, C., Eber, B., Emmanuilidis, K. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Immediate anticonvulsive drug monitoring in management of epilepsy. Patsalos, P.N., Sander, J.W., Oxley, J. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Multicentre evaluation of disposable visual measuring device to assay theophylline from capillary blood sample. Vaughan, L.M., Weinberger, M.M., Milavetz, G., Tillson, S., Ellis, E., Jenne, J., Szefler, S.J., Wiener, M.B., Conboy, K., Shaughnessy, T. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Pharmacokinetics of nelfinavir in children: influencing factors and dose implications. Bergshoeff, A.S., Fraaij, P.L., van Rossum, A.M., Wolfs, T.F., Geelen, S.P., de Groot, R., Burger, D.M. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The syndrome of hepatic veno-occlusive disease after marrow transplantation. Bearman, S.I. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Longitudinal assessment of a P-glycoprotein-mediated drug interaction of valspodar on digoxin. Kovarik, J.M., Rigaudy, L., Guerret, M., Gerbeau, C., Rost, K.L. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Hyponatremia during treatment with clomipramine, perphenazine, or clozapine: study of therapeutic drug monitoring samples. Spigset, O., Hedenmalm, K. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Population pharmacokinetics and use of Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate currently recommended dosing regimens of ciprofloxacin in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Montgomery, M.J., Beringer, P.M., Aminimanizani, A., Louie, S.G., Shapiro, B.J., Jelliffe, R., Gill, M.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Influence of hemodialysis on plasma concentration-time profiles of mefloquine in two patients with end-stage renal disease: a prophylactic drug monitoring study. Crevoisier, C.A., Joseph, I., Fischer, M., Graf, H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Dosage adjustment and clinical outcomes of long-term use of high-dose tobramycin in adult cystic fibrosis patients. Li, S.C., Bowes, G., Ioannides-Demos, L.L., Spicer, W.J., Hooper, R.E., Spelman, D.W., Tong, N., McLean, A.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. A simple method for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate by gentamicin pharmacokinetics during routine drug monitoring in the newborn. Koren, G., James, A., Perlman, M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Relationship between caffeine concentrations in plasma and saliva. Zylber-Katz, E., Granit, L., Levy, M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Drug interactions between lamotrigine and psychoactive drugs: evidence from a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Reimers, A., Skogvoll, E., Sund, J.K., Spigset, O. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. A limited sampling strategy for determining carboplatin AUC and monitoring drug dosage. Chatelut, E., Pivot, X., Otto, J., Chevreau, C., Thyss, A., Renée, N., Milano, G., Canal, P. Eur. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of REMEDi HS in the diagnosis of dimethoate poisoning. Regenthal, R., Krueger, M., Trauer, H., Boehm, R., Preiss, R. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Amiodarone and N-desethylamiodarone concentrations in plasma, red blood cells, and myocardium after a single oral dose: relation to hemodynamic effects in surgical patients. Escoubet, B., Jaillon, P., Berger, Y., Commin, P., Menasché, P., Piwnica, A., Echter, E. Am. Heart J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Rapid determination of methadone in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine by gas chromatography and its application to routine drug monitoring. Schmidt, N., Sittl, R., Brune, K., Geisslinger, G. Pharm. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Caffeine in saliva after peroral intake: early sample collection as a possible source of error. Biederbick, W., Joseph, G., Rump, A., Theisohn, M., Klaus, W. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and its N-demethylated metabolites in plasma using solid-phase extraction. Hartley, R., Smith, I.J., Cookman, J.R. J. Chromatogr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Pharmacokinetics of oral methotrexate in children. Balis, F.M., Savitch, J.L., Bleyer, W.A. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Pediatric phase I trial, pharmacokinetic study, and limited sampling strategy for piritrexim administered on a low-dose, intermittent schedule. Adamson, P.C., Balis, F.M., Miser, J., Arndt, C., Wells, R.J., Gillespie, A., Aronson, L., Penta, J.S., Clendeninn, N.J., Poplack, D.G. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Guidelines for folate supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate: comment on the guidelines for monitoring drug therapy. Alarcón, G.S., Morgan, S.L. Arthritis Rheum. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Therapeutic drug monitoring of mood stabilizers in Medicaid patients with bipolar disorder. Marcus, S.C., Olfson, M., Pincus, H.A., Zarin, D.A., Kupfer, D.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Sexual disturbances during clozapine and haloperidol treatment for schizophrenia. Hummer, M., Kemmler, G., Kurz, M., Kurzthaler, I., Oberbauer, H., Fleischhacker, W.W. The American journal of psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Role of intestinal P-glycoprotein in the plasma and fecal disposition of docetaxel in humans. van Zuylen, L., Verweij, J., Nooter, K., Brouwer, E., Stoter, G., Sparreboom, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. The role of therapeutic monitoring of everolimus in solid organ transplantation. Mabasa, V.H., Ensom, M.H. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography assay for rofecoxib in human serum. Aravind, M.K., Prescilla, R., Ofenstein, J.P. Journal of chromatographic science. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Steady-state serum concentrations of the neuroleptic perphenazine in relation to CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism. Linnet, K., Wiborg, O. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in Japanese adult patients. Yasuhara, M., Iga, T., Zenda, H., Okumura, K., Oguma, T., Yano, Y., Hori, R. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. The kinetics of mycophenolic acid and its glucuronide metabolite in adult kidney transplant recipients. Johnson, A.G., Rigby, R.J., Taylor, P.J., Jones, C.E., Allen, J., Franzen, K., Falk, M.C., Nicol, D. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Sensitive and rapid quantification of busulfan in small plasma volumes by liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. Mürdter, T.E., Coller, J., Claviez, A., Schönberger, F., Hofmann, U., Dreger, P., Schwab, M. Clin. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Routine clinical monitoring of sirolimus (rapamycin) whole-blood concentrations by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Napoli, K.L., Kahan, B.D. Clin. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Capillary electrophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptics. Kataoka, Y., Makino, K., Oishi, R. Electrophoresis (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Development of a new radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin using recombinant erythropoietin. Mason-Garcia, M., Beckman, B.S., Brookins, J.W., Powell, J.S., Lanham, W., Blaisdell, S., Keay, L., Li, S.C., Fisher, J.W. Kidney Int. (1990) [Pubmed]
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