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MeSH Review

Photoreceptors, Vertebrate

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Disease relevance of Photoreceptors, Vertebrate


Psychiatry related information on Photoreceptors, Vertebrate

  • Because rd gene induces different age-related degeneration of cones and rods, we have examined age-related changes in the sensitivity to a light pulse for phase-shifting the locomotor activity rhythms in CBA/J-rd/rd mice [2].

High impact information on Photoreceptors, Vertebrate


Biological context of Photoreceptors, Vertebrate


Anatomical context of Photoreceptors, Vertebrate


Associations of Photoreceptors, Vertebrate with chemical compounds


Gene context of Photoreceptors, Vertebrate

  • In Aipl1(-/-) retinas, the outer nuclear layer develops normally, but rods and cones then quickly degenerate [23].
  • Consistent with expression of RPGR in rods and cones, our results show that mutations in RPGR, in addition to X-linked RP, can also cause cone-specific degeneration [24].
  • Thus, these studies suggest that rods and cones, express the same form of GRK1 [25].
  • These findings support the hypothesis that IRBP is synthesized by the rods and cones, and suggest that its synthesis and secretion are initiated when the photoreceptor inner segments start to differentiate [26].
  • This and a previous study reveal that CaBP4 is critical for signal transmission from rods and cones to second-order neurons [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Photoreceptors, Vertebrate


  1. Tubby-like protein 1 homozygous splice-site mutation causes early-onset severe retinal degeneration. Lewis, C.A., Batlle, I.R., Batlle, K.G., Banerjee, P., Cideciyan, A.V., Huang, J., Alemán, T.S., Huang, Y., Ott, J., Gilliam, T.C., Knowles, J.A., Jacobson, S.G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Decline of circadian photosensitivity associated with retinal degeneration in CBA/J-rd/rd mice. Yoshimura, T., Ebihara, S. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors. Fain, G.L., Matthews, H.R., Cornwall, M.C., Koutalos, Y. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels mediate synaptic feedback by nitric oxide. Savchenko, A., Barnes, S., Kramer, R.H. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and functional expression of a cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel from mammalian sperm. Weyand, I., Godde, M., Frings, S., Weiner, J., Müller, F., Altenhofen, W., Hatt, H., Kaupp, U.B. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Cyclic GMP stimulation of a light-activated ATPase in rod outer segments. Borys, T.J., Uhl, R., Abrahamson, E.W. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of the acylated amino terminus of recoverin in Ca(2+)-dependent membrane interaction. Dizhoor, A.M., Chen, C.K., Olshevskaya, E., Sinelnikova, V.V., Phillipov, P., Hurley, J.B. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. A 49-kilodalton phosphoprotein in the Drosophila photoreceptor is an arrestin homolog. Yamada, T., Takeuchi, Y., Komori, N., Kobayashi, H., Sakai, Y., Hotta, Y., Matsumoto, H. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. The effects of L-glutamate, AMPA, quisqualate, and kainate on retinal horizontal cells depend on adaptational state: implications for rod-cone interactions. Krizaj, D., Akopian, A., Witkovsky, P. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo differential prenylation of retinal cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase catalytic subunits. Anant, J.S., Ong, O.C., Xie, H.Y., Clarke, S., O'Brien, P.J., Fung, B.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Altered expression of genes of the Bmp/Smad and Wnt/calcium signaling pathways in the cone-only Nrl-/- mouse retina, revealed by gene profiling using custom cDNA microarrays. Yu, J., He, S., Friedman, J.S., Akimoto, M., Ghosh, D., Mears, A.J., Hicks, D., Swaroop, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Rhodopsin kinase inhibition by recoverin. Function of recoverin myristoylation. Calvert, P.D., Klenchin, V.A., Bownds, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Cyclic GMP releases calcium from disc membranes of vertebrate photoreceptors. Cavaggioni, A., Sorbi, R.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Actin filaments and photoreceptor membrane turnover. Williams, D.S. Bioessays (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Glutamate modulation of GABA transport in retinal horizontal cells of the skate. Kreitzer, M.A., Andersen, K.A., Malchow, R.P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the IGF system in normal and diabetic transgenic (mRen-2)27 rat eye. Bergman, P.B., Moravski, C.J., Edmondson, S.R., Russo, V.C., Bach, L.A., Wilkinson-Berka, J.L., Werther, G.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Taurine, amino acid transmitters, and related molecules in the retina of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri: a light-microscopic immunocytochemical and electron-microscopic study. Pow, D.V. Cell Tissue Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Calcium-dependent regulation of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase by a protein from frog retinal rods. Kawamura, S., Murakami, M. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. A 26 kd calcium binding protein from bovine rod outer segments as modulator of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase. Lambrecht, H.G., Koch, K.W. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Freeze-fracture studies of photoreceptor membranes: new observations bearing upon the distribution of cholesterol. Andrews, L.D., Cohen, A.I. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. L-glutamate-induced depolarization in solitary photoreceptors: a process that may contribute to the interaction between photoreceptors in situ. Tachibana, M., Kaneko, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for the gamma subunit of bovine retinal transducin. Hurley, J.B., Fong, H.K., Teplow, D.B., Dreyer, W.J., Simon, M.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Leber congenital amaurosis linked to AIPL1: a mouse model reveals destabilization of cGMP phosphodiesterase. Ramamurthy, V., Niemi, G.A., Reh, T.A., Hurley, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Mutations in the RPGR gene cause X-linked cone dystrophy. Yang, Z., Peachey, N.S., Moshfeghi, D.M., Thirumalaichary, S., Chorich, L., Shugart, Y.Y., Fan, K., Zhang, K. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular forms of human rhodopsin kinase (GRK1). Zhao, X., Huang, J., Khani, S.C., Palczewski, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Rhodopsin, 11-cis vitamin A, and interstitial retinol-binding protein (IRBP) during retinal development in normal and rd mutant mice. Carter-Dawson, L., Alvarez, R.A., Fong, S.L., Liou, G.I., Sperling, H.G., Bridges, C.D. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. A critical role of CaBP4 in the cone synapse. Maeda, T., Lem, J., Palczewski, K., Haeseleer, F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. SPACR, a novel interphotoreceptor matrix glycoprotein in human retina that interacts with hyaluronan. Acharya, S., Rodriguez, I.R., Moreira, E.F., Midura, R.J., Misono, K., Todres, E., Hollyfield, J.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular cloning and characterization of chick sialoprotein associated with cones and rods, a developmentally regulated glycoprotein of interphotoreceptor matrix. Zako, M., Iwaki, M., Yoneda, M., Miyaishi, O., Zhao, J., Suzuki, Y., Takeuchi, M., Miyake, G., Ikagawa, H., Kimata, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. The distribution of the components of the cyclic GMP cycle in retina. Berger, S.J., DeVries, G.W., Carter, J.G., Schulz, D.W., Passonneau, P.N., Lowry, O.H., Ferrendelli, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Spatiotemporal coordination of rod and cone photoreceptor differentiation in goldfish retina. Stenkamp, D.L., Barthel, L.K., Raymond, P.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential expression of the presynaptic cytomatrix protein bassoon among ribbon synapses in the mammalian retina. Brandstätter, J.H., Fletcher, E.L., Garner, C.C., Gundelfinger, E.D., Wässle, H. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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