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Chemical Compound Review

NPPB     5-nitro-2-(3- phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid

Synonyms: UPCMLD-DP143, Lopac-N-4779, Tocris-0593, SureCN159244, AG-J-74044, ...
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Disease relevance of C13705

  • Activation of the M3 receptor produced 2382 +/-478 nA of current which was insensitive to Ba2+ and pertussis toxin, but was 85% inhabitable by the Cl channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (10-20 microm) consistent with coupling to an endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl- channel via a phosphatidylinositol-dependent mechanism [1].
  • Furosemide and NPPB blocked the outward-rectifying lactate current and the sorbitol hemolysis with IC(50)s in the range of 0.1 and 1 microM, respectively [2].
  • In glioma cells, RVD was largely inhibited by treatment with a combination of Cl(-) channel inhibitors, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) and Cd(2+) (V(Post-RVD) > 1.4*V(baseline)) [3].
  • A non-selective Cl-channel blocker (DIDS or NPPB) rescued cells from apoptotic death when applied during the reperfusion, but not ischemia, period [4].
  • Replacement of intracellular Cl- by impermeant anions, as well as treatment of insulinoma cells by the Cl- channel blocker, NPPB, leads to activation of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels [5].

High impact information on C13705


Chemical compound and disease context of C13705


Biological context of C13705


Anatomical context of C13705

  • The conductance activated by swelling was permeable to Cl: it was dependent on the Cl concentration gradient across the cell membrane, and it was blocked by the Cl-channel blockers DIDS, SITS, NPPB, and DIOA [17].
  • The Cl(-) channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB; 10(-4) M), previously shown to inhibit SR Cl(-) channels, significantly reduced the magnitude of successive acetylcholine-induced contractions of airway smooth muscle (ASM), suggesting a "run down" of sequestered Ca(2+) within the SR [18].
  • We present evidence that the potent chloride channel blocker NPPB has protonophoric activity in the mitochondria and across the plasma membrane of phagocytic cells [19].
  • The resting O2 consumption of murine peritoneal macrophages was stimulated up to 2.5-fold in the presence of NPPB, with a K0.5 of 15 microM [19].
  • NPPB also mediated rheogenic proton transport across the plasma membrane of human neutrophils and macrophages in the direction dictated by the electrochemical proton gradient [19].

Associations of C13705 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of C13705


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of C13705

  • In whole-cell recordings, hypotonic solution activated a chloride current that exhibited outward rectification, weak voltage-dependent inactivation, and anion selectivity with permeability sequence of I- > Br- > Cl-. The current was sensitive to Cl- channel blockers tamoxifen, NPPB and DIDS [30].
  • In the case of small AVMs, surgery alone is a viable option; however, in the case of large AVMs, pre-operative embolisation is essential for prevention of NPPB (normal perfusion pressure breakthrough) [31].


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  2. Organic osmolyte permeabilities of the malaria-induced anion conductances in human erythrocytes. Duranton, C., Huber, S.M., Tanneur, V., Brand, V.B., Akkaya, C., Shumilina, E.V., Sandu, C.D., Lang, F. J. Gen. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Relative contribution of chloride channels and transporters to regulatory volume decrease in human glioma cells. Ernest, N.J., Weaver, A.K., Van Duyn, L.B., Sontheimer, H.W. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Chloride channel inhibition prevents ROS-dependent apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion in mouse cardiomyocytes. Wang, X., Takahashi, N., Uramoto, H., Okada, Y. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. ATP-sensitive K+ channels reveal the effects of intracellular chloride variations on cytoplasmic ATP concentrations and mitochondrial function. de Weille, J.R., Lazdunski, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of glucagon on intracellular pH regulation in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. Alvaro, D., Della Guardia, P., Bini, A., Gigliozzi, A., Furfaro, S., La Rosa, T., Piat, C., Capocaccia, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. On the mechanism of parathyroid hormone stimulation of calcium uptake by mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Gesek, F.A., Friedman, P.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Oscillatory chloride efflux at the pollen tube apex has a role in growth and cell volume regulation and is targeted by inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. Zonia, L., Cordeiro, S., Tupý, J., Feijó, J.A. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Chloride, not sodium, stimulates expression of the gamma subunit of Na/K-ATPase and activates JNK in response to hypertonicity in mouse IMCD3 cells. Capasso, J.M., Rivard, C.J., Enomoto, L.M., Berl, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Angiotensin II stimulates vesicular H+-ATPase in rat proximal tubular cells. Wagner, C.A., Giebisch, G., Lang, F., Geibel, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of Cl- channel blockers on aconitine-induced arrhythmias in rat heart. Zhou, S.S., Yang, J., Li, Y.Q., Zhao, L.Y., Xu, M., Ding, Y.F. Exp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Non-specificity of chloride channel blockers in rat cerebral arteries: block of the L-type calcium channel. Doughty, J.M., Miller, A.L., Langton, P.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Cl- channel inhibitors of the arylaminobenzoate type act as photosystem II herbicides: a functional and structural study. Bock, A., Krieger-Liszkay, A., Beitia Ortiz de Zarate, I., Schönknecht, G. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential expression of volume-regulated anion channels during cell cycle progression of human cervical cancer cells. Shen, M.R., Droogmans, G., Eggermont, J., Voets, T., Ellory, J.C., Nilius, B. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Liquid secretion inhibitors reduce mucociliary transport in glandular airways. Ballard, S.T., Trout, L., Mehta, A., Inglis, S.K. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of bile acids on dog pancreatic duct epithelial cell secretion and monolayer resistance. Okolo, C., Wong, T., Moody, M.W., Nguyen, T.D. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Swelling activates chloride current and increases internal calcium in nonpigmented epithelial cells from the rabbit ciliary body. Botchkin, L.M., Matthews, G. J. Cell. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Intracellular Cl- fluxes play a novel role in Ca2+ handling in airway smooth muscle. Hirota, S., Trimble, N., Pertens, E., Janssen, L.J. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid (NPPB) uncouples mitochondria and increases the proton permeability of the plasma membrane in phagocytic cells. Lukacs, G.L., Nanda, A., Rotstein, O.D., Grinstein, S. FEBS Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanism of calcium transport stimulated by chlorothiazide in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Gesek, F.A., Friedman, P.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Functional insertion of the SV40 large T oncogene in cystic fibrosis intestinal epithelium. Characterization of CFI-3 cells. Chastre, E., Di Gioia, Y., Barbry, P., Simon-Bouy, B., Mornet, E., Fanen, P., Champigny, G., Emami, S., Gespach, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. PTH stimulates a Cl(-)-dependent and EIPA-sensitive current in chick proximal tubule cells in culture. Laverty, G., McWilliams, C., Sheldon, A., Arnason, S.S. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulatory volume decrease is actively modulated during the cell cycle. Wang, L., Chen, L., Zhu, L., Rawle, M., Nie, S., Zhang, J., Ping, Z., Kangrong, C., Jacob, T.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Signaling and distribution of NPR-Bi, the human splice form of the natriuretic peptide receptor type B. Hirsch, J.R., Skutta, N., Schlatter, E. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction and reversal of cardiac phenotype of human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation cardiac troponin T-Q92 in switch on-switch off bigenic mice. Lutucuta, S., Tsybouleva, N., Ishiyama, M., Defreitas, G., Wei, L., Carabello, B., Marian, A.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. [(Dihydroindenyl)oxy]alkonic acid inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Ito, Y., Aoyama, M., Yamada, N., Mizuno, Y., Kume, H., Yamaki, K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Calcitonin stimulates calcium transport in distal convoluted tubule cells. Gesek, F.A., Friedman, P.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Functional expression and apical localization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in MDCK I cells. Mohamed, A., Ferguson, D., Seibert, F.S., Cai, H.M., Kartner, N., Grinstein, S., Riordan, J.R., Lukacs, G.L. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. mtCLIC is up-regulated and maintains a mitochondrial membrane potential in mtDNA-depleted L929 cells. Arnould, T., Mercy, L., Houbion, A., Vankoningsloo, S., Renard, P., Pascal, T., Ninane, N., Demazy, C., Raes, M. FASEB J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Pharmacological and biophysical properties of swelling-activated chloride channel in mouse cardiac myocytes. Wang, J., Xu, H., Sun, X., Niu, W. The Chinese journal of physiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Strategy for the treatment of arteriovenous malformations. Sano, H., Kato, Y., Bannur, U., Okuma, I., Kanaoka, N., Kanno, T. Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. (2000) [Pubmed]
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