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Gene Review

Pgk1  -  phosphoglycerate kinase 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Pgk-1, Phosphoglycerate kinase 1
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Disease relevance of Pgk1


High impact information on Pgk1


Chemical compound and disease context of Pgk1


Biological context of Pgk1

  • Pgk1 and Hprt gene activity in the peri-implantation mouse embryo is influenced by the parental origin of the X-chromosome [14].
  • Like the Pgk1 locus, significantly more maternal Hprt transcripts were found in the gastrula-stage embryos irrespective of their genotypes [14].
  • A factor stimulating transcription of the testis-specific Pgk-2 gene recognizes a sequence similar to the binding site for a transcription inhibitor of the somatic-type Pgk-1 gene [15].
  • Comparative mapping data from the human X chromosome indicate that the most probable location of the mouse X-inactivation center is distal to Ccg-1 and in the region of the Pgk-1 locus [16].
  • Tissue-specific expression of the two PGK-encoding genes (Pgk) seems to be transcriptionally controlled, since tissue distribution of the mRNAs coincides well with that of the proteins [17].

Anatomical context of Pgk1

  • Pgk1 mRNA abundance was severely reduced in androgenones at the eight-cell and morula stages and remained reduced, but to a lesser degree, in androgenetic blastocysts [18].
  • For the Pgk1 gene, the maternal allele-specific transcripts were consistently more abundant than the paternal transcripts in the blastocyst and the late gastrula [14].
  • A transient expression assay of DNAs having various portions of the Pgk-2 upstream region linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT)-encoding gene (cat) was performed using mouse cell lines that exclusively express Pgk-1 [17].
  • Moreover, the cis element inhibited Pgk-2 transcription with no effect on Pgk-1 transcription in a cell-free system using nuclear extracts of rat liver [17].
  • The expression of maternally derived X-chromosomal Pgk-1 alleles was investigated in oocytes and early embryos of mice carrying different alleles (Xcea, Xcec) of the X-chromosome controlling element (Xce) locus [19].

Associations of Pgk1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Pgk1

  • Therefore, we conclude that the maternal PGK-1 locus is already activated during late preimplantation development whereas the paternally inherited gene locus remains silent at the preimplantation stage but is subsequently expressed at approximately the time of X-chromosomal inactivation [25].

Other interactions of Pgk1

  • Using quantitative oligonucleotide hybridization assays after RT-PCR, we investigated Xist expression in ES lines heterozygous at the Pgk-1 and Xist loci [26].
  • We report the assignment of two new loci, EM13 and DXSmh44, to the Ccg-1/Pgk-1 interval [16].
  • Linkage analysis involving the markers Pgk-1 and Ags indicated a gene order of centromere--Hprt--Pgk-1--Ags in crosses involving both stocks of wild mice [27].
  • This finding also demonstrates that the timing of reactivation of maternal Pgk-1 is not influenced by the Xce locus [19].
  • To help resolve this issue, we analysed XCI in embryos which carry the T(X;16)16H (Searle's) translocation and are heterozygous at the X-linked Hprt and Pgk-1 genes [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pgk1


  1. Absolute requirement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein for gene activation by hypoxia. Salceda, S., Beck, I., Caro, J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 gene expression by hypoxia. Roles of Arnt and HIF1alpha. Li, H., Ko, H.P., Whitlock, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of placenta growth factor contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Tsao, P.N., Su, Y.N., Li, H., Huang, P.H., Chien, C.T., Lai, Y.L., Lee, C.N., Chen, C.A., Cheng, W.F., Wei, S.C., Yu, C.J., Hsieh, F.J., Hsu, S.M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Murine PGK-1 promoter drives widespread but not uniform expression in transgenic mice. McBurney, M.W., Staines, W.A., Boekelheide, K., Parry, D., Jardine, K., Pickavance, L. Dev. Dyn. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Intragenic regions of the murine Pgk-1 locus enhance integration of transfected DNAs into genomes of embryonal carcinoma cells. McBurney, M.W., Fournier, S., Jardine, K., Sutherland, L. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Methylation of CpG sites of two X-linked genes coincides with X-inactivation in the female mouse embryo but not in the germ line. Grant, M., Zuccotti, M., Monk, M. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Reversal of X-inactivation in female mouse somatic cells hybridized with murine teratocarcinoma stem cells in vitro. Takagi, N., Yoshida, M.A., Sugawara, O., Sasaki, M. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic activity of X chromosomes in pluripotent female teratocarcinoma cells and their differentiated progeny. McBurney, M.W., Strutt, B.J. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphoglycerate kinase acts in tumour angiogenesis as a disulphide reductase. Lay, A.J., Jiang, X.M., Kisker, O., Flynn, E., Underwood, A., Condron, R., Hogg, P.J. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Hypoxic inhibition of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced CYP1A1 expression is independent of HIF-1alpha. Allen, J.W., Johnson, R.S., Bhatia, S.N. Toxicol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Evaluation of GAL4/TATA in vivo. Induction of transgene expression by adenovirally mediated gene codelivery. Fang, B., Ji, L., Bouvet, M., Roth, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification, sequencing, and enzymatic activity of the erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Vibrio cholerae. Carroll, P.A., Zhao, G., Boyko, S.A., Winkler, M.E., Calderwood, S.B. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Transgenic sheep and wool growth: possibilities and current status. Powell, B.C., Walker, S.K., Bawden, C.S., Sivaprasad, A.V., Rogers, G.E. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Pgk1 and Hprt gene activity in the peri-implantation mouse embryo is influenced by the parental origin of the X-chromosome. Sturm, K., Lafferty, M., Tam, P.P. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. A factor stimulating transcription of the testis-specific Pgk-2 gene recognizes a sequence similar to the binding site for a transcription inhibitor of the somatic-type Pgk-1 gene. Goto, M., Masamune, Y., Nakanishi, Y. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Genetic mapping in the region of the mouse X-inactivation center. Keer, J.T., Hamvas, R.M., Brockdorff, N., Page, D., Rastan, S., Brown, S.D. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. A silencer-like cis element for the testis-specific phosphoglycerate-kinase-2-encoding gene. Mizuno, K., Goto, M., Masamune, Y., Nakanishi, Y. Gene (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of X-linked genes in androgenetic, gynogenetic, and normal mouse preimplantation embryos. Latham, K.E., Rambhatla, L. Dev. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of X-linked phosphoglycerate kinase in early mouse embryos homozygous at the Xce locus. Krietsch, W.K., Fehlau, M., Renner, P., Bücher, T., Fundele, R. Differentiation (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Parental imprinting studied by allele-specific primer extension after PCR: paternal X chromosome-linked genes are transcribed prior to preferential paternal X chromosome inactivation. Singer-Sam, J., Chapman, V., LeBon, J.M., Riggs, A.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Hypoxia-inducible mammalian gene expression analyzed in vivo at a TATA-driven promoter and at an initiator-driven promoter. Okino, S.T., Chichester, C.H., Whitlock, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Molecular evolution of the human Pgk-2 retroposon. McCarrey, J.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Electrophoresis of phosphoglycerate kinase-2 to determine testicular damage induced by ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and sterility associated with chromosomal abnormality. Koizumi, A., Hamade, N., Arai, M., Takatoku, M., Yasuhiko, W., Tsukada, M., Kamiyama, S. Arch. Toxicol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Methylation analysis by genomic sequencing of 5' region of mouse Pgk-1 gene and a cautionary note concerning the method. Tommasi, S., LeBon, J.M., Riggs, A.D., Singer-Sam, J. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. The expression of X-linked phosphoglycerate kinase in the early mouse embryo. Krietsch, W.K., Fundele, R., Kuntz, G.W., Fehlau, M., Bürki, K., Illmensee, K. Differentiation (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Quantitative RT-PCR assays show Xist RNA levels are low in mouse female adult tissue, embryos and embryoid bodies. Buzin, C.H., Mann, J.R., Singer-Sam, J. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Electrophoretic variation for X chromosome-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) in wild-derived mice. Chapman, V.M., Kratzer, P.G., Quarantillo, B.A. Genetics (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Mouse endogenous X-linked genes do not show lineage-specific delayed inactivation during development. Lebon, J.M., Tam, P.P., Singer-Sam, J., Riggs, A.D., Tan, S.S. Genet. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Transcription switch of two phosphoglycerate kinase genes during spermatogenesis as determined with mouse testis sections in situ. Goto, M., Koji, T., Mizuno, K., Tamaru, M., Koikeda, S., Nakane, P.K., Mori, N., Masamune, Y., Nakanishi, Y. Exp. Cell Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparison of the two purified allozymes (1B and 1A) of X-linked phosphoglycerate kinase in the mouse. Mühlbacher, C., Kuntz, G.W., Haedenkamp, G.A., Krietsch, W.K. Biochem. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Post-meiotic transcription of phosphoglycerate-kinase 2 in mouse testes. Erickson, R.P., Michelson, A.M., Rosenberg, M.P., Sánchez, E., Orkin, S.H. Biosci. Rep. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Probable clonal development of foreign-body-induced murine sarcomas. Reddy, A.L., Fialkow, P.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
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