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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ankle


High impact information on Ankle

  • In the tarsus, ss is expressed only early, and is required for later expression of the tarsal gene bric à brac (bab) [4].
  • For example, bric-a-brac2 is normally expressed in the central part of the tarsus domain but expands into distal and proximal regions in bowl clones [5].
  • In early third instar, juxtaposition of Bar-positive and Bar-negative tissues causes central folding that may separate future tarsal segments 2 from 3, while juxtaposition of tissues differentially expressing Bar homeobox genes at later stages gives rise to segmental boundaries of distal tarsi including the tarsus/pretarsus boundary [6].
  • Dll protein can be detected in a central domain in leg discs throughout most of larval development, and in mature discs this domain corresponds to the distal-most region of the leg, the tarsus and the distal tibia [7].
  • Here we show in five independent assays the reason for this apparent contradictory requirement of SCR activity in tarsus determination [8].

Biological context of Ankle

  • At particular stages and doses of Antennapedia product, cell differentiation of leg bristles was uncoupled from transformation of the third antennal segment to tarsus [9].
  • HOXA-2 activity expressed from the Tubulin alpha 1 promoter modified the pb null phenotype resulting in a proboscis-to-arista transformation, indicating that HOXA-2 was able to suppress SCR activity required for tarsus formation [10].

Anatomical context of Ankle

  • Touching the mesothoracic tarsus, for example, increases the number of spikes that are produced by the metathoracic slow extensor tibiae motor neuron and enhances the depolarization of flexor tibiae motor neuron in response to imposed movements of the chordotonal organ in the ipsilateral hind femur [11].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tarsal-conjunctival disease, a previously uncommon finding in patients with WG, was characterized by inflammation of the palpebral conjunctiva and tarsus followed by a fibrovascular proliferation and scar formation [12].
  • In the 30 mg/kg ciprofloxacin group and the 30 and 60 mg/kg norfloxacin groups, histopathological articular cartilage lesions of the shoulder, elbow, carpus, hip, knee and tarsus joints were observed in all of the dogs [13].
  • Over the course of the human career the human foot has evolved an elaborate plantar aponeurosis, strong plantar ligaments, longitudinal arches, an enlarged musculus flexor accessorius, an adducted (non-opposable) hallux, a remodeled calcaneocuboid joint, a long tarsus, and shortened toes (II to V) [14].
  • The immobilization of the flexor digitorum profundus tendons in the tarsus resulted in a loss of specialized structures around and on this tendon, as determined by light and electron microscopy [15].

Associations of Ankle with chemical compounds


Gene context of Ankle

  • We propose that EXD localized to the nucleus suppresses tarsus determination and activates arista determination [21].
  • Three observations rule out a cell autonomous role for ANTP in tarsus determination [22].
  • The tarsus, which has been proposed to be an ancestral structure, is instead defined by the activity of Distalless, dachshund, and a distal gradient of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras signaling [23].
  • In Drosophila, PB inhibits SCR activity required for larval T1 beard formation and adult tarsus formation and is required for maxillary palp and proboscis formation [10].
  • The expressed levels of dGqalpha and itpr in the tarsus of poxn70 mutant flies were reduced compared with those of wild-type flies [24].


  1. Giant papillary conjunctivitis with ocular prostheses. Srinivasan, B.D., Jakobiec, F.A., Iwamoto, T., DeVoe, A.G. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis associated with soft contact lens wear. Stenson, S. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Chemotherapy of synovial cell sarcoma in a dog. Tilmant, L.L., Gorman, N.T., Ackerman, N., Mays, M.B., Parker, R. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Control of distal antennal identity and tarsal development in Drosophila by spineless-aristapedia, a homolog of the mammalian dioxin receptor. Duncan, D.M., Burgess, E.A., Duncan, I. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Bowl is required downstream of Notch for elaboration of distal limb patterning. de Celis Ibeas, J.M., Bray, S.J. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Formation and specification of distal leg segments in Drosophila by dual Bar homeobox genes, BarH1 and BarH2. Kojima, T., Sato, M., Saigo, K. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The roles of the homeobox genes aristaless and Distal-less in patterning the legs and wings of Drosophila. Campbell, G., Tomlinson, A. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic characterization of the role of the two HOX proteins, Proboscipedia and Sex Combs Reduced, in determination of adult antennal, tarsal, maxillary palp and proboscis identities in Drosophila melanogaster. Percival-Smith, A., Weber, J., Gilfoyle, E., Wilson, P. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Time- and concentration-dependent response of the Drosophila antenna imaginal disc to Antennapedia. Scanga, S., Manoukian, A., Larsen, E. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Analysis of murine HOXA-2 activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Percival-Smith, A., Bondy, J.A. Dev. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Intersegmental interneurons can control the gain of reflexes in adjacent segments of the locust by their action on nonspiking local interneurons. Laurent, G., Burrows, M. J. Neurosci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Tarsal-conjunctival disease associated with Wegener's granulomatosis. Robinson, M.R., Lee, S.S., Sneller, M.C., Lerner, R., Langford, C.A., Talar-Williams, C., Cox, T.A., Chan, C.C., Smith, J.A. Ophthalmology (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparative articular toxicity of garenoxacin, a novel quinolone antimicrobial agent, in juvenile beagle dogs. Nagai, A., Miyazaki, M., Morita, T., Furubo, S., Kizawa, K., Fukumoto, H., Sanzen, T., Hayakawa, H., Kawamura, Y. The Journal of toxicological sciences. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Evolution of the human foot: evidence from Plio-Pleistocene hominids. Susman, R.L. Foot & ankle. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. The role of movement in the development of a digital flexor tendon. Beckham, C., Dimond, R., Greenlee, T.K. Am. J. Anat. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Amniotic membrane transplantation in entropion surgery. Ti, S.E., Tow, S.L., Chee, S.P. Ophthalmology (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Local movements evoked by chemical stimulation of the hind leg in the locust Schistocerca gregaria. Rogers, S.M., Newland, P.L. J. Exp. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Haemolytic anaemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: demonstration of two new biochemical variants, G6PD Hamm and G6PD Tarsus. Gahr, M., Bornhalm, D., Schröter, W. Br. J. Haematol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Open sky Müller's muscle-conjunctiva resection for ptosis surgery. Lake, S., Mohammad-Ali, F.H., Khooshabeh, R. Eye (London, England) (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Diffusion of mepivacaine between adjacent synovial structures in the horse. Part 2: tarsus and stifle. Gough, M.R., Munroe, G.A., Mayhew, G. Equine Vet. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Analysis in Drosophila melanogaster of the interaction between sex combs reduced and extradenticle activity in the determination of tarsus and arista identity. Percival-Smith, A., Hayden, D.J. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Tarsus determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Percival-Smith, A., Teft, W.A., Barta, J.L. Genome (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Leg patterning driven by proximal-distal interactions and EGFR signaling. Galindo, M.I., Bishop, S.A., Greig, S., Couso, J.P. Science (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate transduction cascade in taste reception of the fleshfly, Boettcherisca peregrina. Koganezawa, M., Shimada, I. J. Neurobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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