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Disease relevance of Calcaneus


Psychiatry related information on Calcaneus

  • In conclusion, it was suggested that disease activity of RA and impairment of daily physical activity might be a significant determinant of deterioration of bone structure in paraartciular distal radius and calcaneus, respectively, in early-stage RA patients [6].

High impact information on Calcaneus

  • Moreover, the common carotid artery IMT in RA patients was positively associated with disease duration, the MCP joint Larsen score, and the M-HAQ score, and was negatively associated with the calcaneus OSI Z score [7].
  • However, no association was observed between ESRRA and QUS heel bone measures [8].
  • We measured potential risk factors and BMD of the wrist and calcaneus at baseline and BMD of the spine and hip halfway through follow-up [9].
  • These data have shown that the fractal analysis of texture on calcaneus radiographs can distinguish osteoporotic fracture groups from control groups [10].
  • Lower levels of endogenous estrogens and higher SHBG concentrations were associated with more rapid subsequent bone loss from both the calcaneus and hip [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Calcaneus


Biological context of Calcaneus

  • In a longitudinal in vivo study, we studied the effect of two different doses of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) administered in the form of a subcutaneous implant, on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae (L4, L5, L4-L6/L5-L7), the calcaneus (CAL) and the distal radius (DR) in ovariectomized (OVX) ewes [15].
  • Significant associations were observed between BMP2 c.584G > A, c.893T > A genotypes and male calcaneus as well as female distal radius BMD [16].
  • Adjusted ultrasound measures of the calcaneus were low in 47% of patients, but there was no difference of the VDR gene frequencies in these patients compared with those with normal ultrasound results or controls [17].

Anatomical context of Calcaneus

  • Effects of lifetime volleyball exercise on bone mineral densities in lumbar spine, calcaneus and tibia for pre-, peri- and postmenopausal women [18].
  • The models were then used to determine the capacity to predict talus positions from shank positions, both with respect to the calcaneus [19].
  • The relationships between cartilage canals, perichondral bone and the ossification centre were studied in the calcaneus of 9 to 38-wk-old human fetuses, by use of epoxy resin embedding, three-dimensional computer reconstructions and immunhistochemistry on paraffin sections [20].
  • The plantaris is a simple unipennate muscle arising from an aponeurosis in common with LG and inserting primarily into the tendon of m. flexor digitorum brevis, but with ligamentous connections to the calcaneus [21].
  • METHODS: Five children 4-13 years old with ABC in pubis, humerus, fibula, calcaneus, and ilium-ischium were studied between January 1995 and December 1996 [22].

Associations of Calcaneus with chemical compounds

  • Fractal analysis of texture was performed on calcaneus radiographs and the result was expressed as the H parameter (H = 2-fractal dimension) [10].
  • Compared with nonusers, current estrogen users had a 33% lower age-adjusted mean rate of loss at the total hip (2.9 vs 4.3 mg/cm 2/year, p < or = 0.0001) and a 35% lower age-adjusted mean rate of loss at the calcaneus (3.9 vs 6.0 mg/cm 2/year, p < or = 0.0001) [23].
  • Levels of parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and Calcium were not significantly associated with bone loss from the calcaneus or hip [11].
  • Non-use of chlorthalidone was associated with bone loss at the calcaneus (-0.56% per year) and the proximal radius (-0.91% per year); borderline bone gain was observed at the distal radius (+0.39%) [24].
  • RESULTS: Compared with oral daily alfacalcidol, i.v. ibandronate produced significantly superior gains in mean (+/-s.d.) BMD at the lumbar spine (2.2+/-3.1 vs 11.9+/-7.4%; P<0.001), femoral neck (1.3+/-1.8 vs 4.7+/-4.0%; P<0.001) and calcaneus (7.6+/-3.8 vs 15.5+/-10.7%; P<0.0001) after 2 yr [25].

Gene context of Calcaneus

  • A significant association was also observed between BMP4 IVS1-160C > T and male calcaneus BMD (P for trend = 0.024) [16].
  • Preferential reductions of paraarticular trabecular bone component in ultradistal radius and of calcaneus ultrasonography in early-stage rheumatoid arthritis [6].
  • Trabecular BMD in the ultradistal radius exhibited negative correlations with serum CRP, ESR, and RF, and calcaneus OSI with M-HAQ score [6].
  • Women with the OPG 1181 CC genotype had higher BMDs at the distal radius (7%) and calcaneus (10%) than those with the GG genotype; and these differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively) [26].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heel bone parameters were measured by right calcaneal QUS in 1335 healthy French-Canadian premenopausal women, and one-half of these women also had their BMD evaluated at two sites: femoral neck and lumbar spine (L2-L4) by DXA [8].


  1. Calcaneal abnormalities in articular disorders. Rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and Reiter syndrome. Resnick, D., Feingold, M.L., Curd, J., Niwayama, G., Goergen, T.G. Radiology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Multiple stress fractures in the hindfoot in rheumatoid arthritis. Semba, C.P., Mitchell, M.J., Sartoris, D.J., Resnick, D. J. Rheumatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. The risk of Colles' fracture is associated with the collagen I alpha1 Sp1 polymorphism and ultrasound transmission velocity in the calcaneus only in heavier postmenopausal women. Weichetova, M., Stepan, J.J., Haas, T., Michalska, D. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on disuse osteoporosis in the dog: a histomorphometric study. Caywood, D.D., Wallace, L.J., Olson, W.G., Stevens, J.B. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Treatment of unicameral calcaneal bone cysts in children: review of literature and results using a cannulated screw for continuous decompression of the cyst. Saraph, V., Zwick, E.B., Maizen, C., Schneider, F., Linhart, W.E. Journal of pediatric orthopedics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Preferential reductions of paraarticular trabecular bone component in ultradistal radius and of calcaneus ultrasonography in early-stage rheumatoid arthritis. Inaba, M., Nagata, M., Goto, H., Kumeda, Y., Kobayashi, K., Nakatsuka, K., Miki, T., Yamada, S., Ishimura, E., Nishizawa, Y. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased thickness of the arterial intima-media detected by ultrasonography in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Kumeda, Y., Inaba, M., Goto, H., Nagata, M., Henmi, Y., Furumitsu, Y., Ishimura, E., Inui, K., Yutani, Y., Miki, T., Shoji, T., Nishizawa, Y. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. A frequent regulatory variant of the estrogen-related receptor alpha gene associated with BMD in French-Canadian premenopausal women. Laflamme, N., Giroux, S., Loredo-Osti, J.C., Elfassihi, L., Dodin, S., Blanchet, C., Morgan, K., Giguère, V., Rousseau, F. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Risk factors for a first-incident radiographic vertebral fracture in women > or = 65 years of age: the study of osteoporotic fractures. Nevitt, M.C., Cummings, S.R., Stone, K.L., Palermo, L., Black, D.M., Bauer, D.C., Genant, H.K., Hochberg, M.C., Ensrud, K.E., Hillier, T.A., Cauley, J.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Fractal analysis of radiographic trabecular bone texture and bone mineral density: two complementary parameters related to osteoporotic fractures. Benhamou, C.L., Poupon, S., Lespessailles, E., Loiseau, S., Jennane, R., Siroux, V., Ohley, W., Pothuaud, L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Hormonal predictors of bone loss in elderly women: a prospective study. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Stone, K., Bauer, D.C., Black, D.M., Sklarin, P., Ensrud, K.E., Cummings, S.R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Vitamin D receptor gene start codon polymorphism (FokI) is associated with forearm bone mineral density and calcaneal ultrasound in Finnish adolescent boys but not in girls. Laaksonen, M.M., Kärkkäinen, M.U., Outila, T.A., Rita, H.J., Lamberg-Allardt, C.J. J. Bone Miner. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Simple bone cyst of the calcaneus. A case report and literature review. Smith, S.B., Shane, H.S. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Total calcanectomy for the treatment of chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis. Baumhauer, J.F., Fraga, C.J., Gould, J.S., Johnson, J.E. Foot & ankle international / American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society [and] Swiss Foot and Ankle Society. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Dose-response effects of estradiol implants on bone mineral density in ovariectomized ewes. Turner, A.S., Mallinckrodt, C.H., Alvis, M.R., Bryant, H.U. Bone (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of bone morphogenetic protein genes and peripheral bone mineral density in young Korean men and women. Choi, J.Y., Shin, C.S., Hong, Y.C., Kang, D. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Calcaneal ultrasound attenuation and vitamin-D-receptor genotypes in celiac disease. Vogelsang, H., Suk, E.K., Janisiw, M., Stain, C., Mayr, W.R., Panzer, S. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of lifetime volleyball exercise on bone mineral densities in lumbar spine, calcaneus and tibia for pre-, peri- and postmenopausal women. Ito, M., Nakamura, T., Ikeda, S., Tahara, Y., Hashmi, R., Tsurusaki, K., Uetani, M., Hayashi, K. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Predicting talocalcaneal joint orientations from talocalcaneal/talocrural joint orientations. Engsberg, J.R., Grimston, S.K., Wackwitz, J.H. J. Orthop. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Ossification in the human calcaneus: a model for spatial bone development and ossification. Fritsch, H., Brenner, E., Debbage, P. J. Anat. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Anatomy and innervation patterns of cat lateral gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles. English, A.W., Letbetter, W.D. Am. J. Anat. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Sonographic findings in aneurysmal bone cyst in children: correlation with computed tomography findings. Gómez, J., Pinar, A., Vallcanera, A., Moreno, A., Cortina, H. Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Hip and calcaneal bone loss increase with advancing age: longitudinal results from the study of osteoporotic fractures. Ensrud, K.E., Palermo, L., Black, D.M., Cauley, J., Jergas, M., Orwoll, E.S., Nevitt, M.C., Fox, K.M., Cummings, S.R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of chlorthalidone and bone loss in elderly women. Wasnich, R.D., Davis, J.W., He, Y.F., Petrovich, H., Ross, P.D. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Three-monthly ibandronate bolus injection offers favourable tolerability and sustained efficacy advantage over two years in established corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Ringe, J.D., Dorst, A., Faber, H., Ibach, K., Preuss, J. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Genetic polymorphisms of OPG, RANK, and ESR1 and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. Choi, J.Y., Shin, A., Park, S.K., Chung, H.W., Cho, S.I., Shin, C.S., Kim, H., Lee, K.M., Lee, K.H., Kang, C., Cho, D.Y., Kang, D. Calcif. Tissue Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
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