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MeSH Review

United Nations

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Disease relevance of United Nations

  • The WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Bank have recommended that 33 African countries at risk for yellow fever add the vaccine to the routine Expanded Programme on Immunization; studies show that this would be highly cost-effective [1].
  • With support from local UNICEF staff, the nutrition team examined 680 children, measuring weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference and observing clinical signs of anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and dehydration [2].
  • We evaluated the UNICEF/Government of Egypt/WHO Schistosomiasis Control project in 2 districts of Beheira Governorate of the Nile Delta during 3 weeks in February 1988 [3].
  • A United Nations (UNHCR)-sponsored study has been undertaken, involving neurologists from the Turkish-speaking northern and Greek-speaking southern communities of Cyprus, to ascertain the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and to bring the medical personnel of the two communities to work together [4].
  • Led by an international partnership including Rotary International, the WHO, UNICEF and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA, the global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis has made remarkable progress since its beginning in 1988 [5].

Psychiatry related information on United Nations


High impact information on United Nations

  • UNRWA and the health of Palestinian refugees. United Nations Relief and Works Agency [9].
  • UNICEF/W.H.O. glucose electrolyte solution not always appropriate [10].
  • Toxaphene and chlordane are among the 12 persistent organic pollutants identified by the United Nations Environment Programme as requiring urgent attention [11].
  • METHODS: Measurement of morning and evening salivary cortisol and ratings of psychologic distress (using the Impact of Events Scale [IES], the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire) were performed with 31 United Nations soldiers at three time points--5 days and 2 and 9 months--following a mine accident in Lebanon [12].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations on reducing risk of seizures have been developed by agencies in the United Kingdom, Japan, and the International Telecommunications Union, affiliated with the United Nations. The Epilepsy Foundation of America has developed a consensus of medical experts and scientists on this subject, reported in an accompanying work [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of United Nations


Biological context of United Nations

  • In January 2001 a Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Consultation Committee on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology published a report outlining in detail an approach for assessing the allergenic potential of novel proteins [15].
  • The test ORS with a reduced glucose and sodium concentration is more efficient than the WHO/UNICEF ORS in preserving net intestinal fluid balance in severe cholera [16].
  • In a commitment to zero ozone depletion, the United Nations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have called for the phase-out of the manufacture and import of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), used as auxiliary blowing agents (ABAs) in the manufacture of polyurethane foams [17].
  • Frequently 85-90% of the costs are devoted to infrastructure; in combination with salt iodization, the cost for fluoride equipment is 30-50% less. loIization is promoted by WHO, UNICEF, other international organizations and national aid agencies which can indirectly support salt fluoridation [18].
  • The joint food and agriculture organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives and its role in the evaluation of the safety of veterinary drug residues in foods [19].

Anatomical context of United Nations

  • METHODS: Urinary iodine levels and thyroid size were determined and categorised according to guidelines proposed jointly by the WHO, UNICEF and the ICCIDD [20].

Associations of United Nations with chemical compounds

  • Since 1986 the international NGO, the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, has worked closely as an expert group with WHO and UNICEF in assisting countries with a program of universal salt iodization for the elimination of iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage by the year 2000 [21].
  • Lysine was the limiting amino acid relative to the FAO protein scoring pattern (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), and the amino acid scores were 0.73 and 0.66 for Jarrah and Marri pollen, respectively [22].
  • The International Tuberculosis Campaign was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund and three Scandinavian voluntary organizations [23].
  • From June to October 1995, the U.S. Army's 86th Combat Support Hospital was deployed in Haiti in support of the United Nations peacekeeping mission [24].
  • PM and FM made with UNICEF micronutrient sachets provided 30% adequate intake for niacin [25].

Gene context of United Nations

  • To date, according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report, based on a review of epidemiological and radiobiological studies, the main radiation-related effect of the Chernobyl accident is an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer [26].
  • DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHOD: Aggregated macro data were obtained from OECD Health Data, United Nations Demographic Yearbooks, and U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most of the 15 OECD countries experienced growth in LTC expenditures over the study period [27].
  • A system of external reviewers was established by the World Bank Group to promote a thorough environmental and health impact assessment for the 3.5 billion US dollars Chad Oil Export Project, based on a loan request from Chad, Cameroon and a consortium of oil companies [28].
  • It took over 3 months and the combined efforts of a National Task Force set up by the Federal Ministry of Health, the WHO, UNICEF, UNDP, Médecins Sans Frontières, the International Red Cross and several other non-governmental organizations to bring the epidemic under control [29].
  • Multiple sclerosis in the Turkish- and Greek-speaking communities of Cyprus. A United Nations (UNHCR) Bicommunal Project [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of United Nations

  • This randomized trial compared the efficacy of a rice-based (50 g/L) oral rehydration solution with the standard glucose-based WHO/UNICEF solution in the treatment of 100 hospitalized infants, ages 3-18 months, with acute dehydrating diarrhea [30].


  1. Yellow fever: a decade of reemergence. Robertson, S.E., Hull, B.P., Tomori, O., Bele, O., LeDuc, J.W., Esteves, K. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Nutrition mission to Iraq for UNICEF. Field, J.O., Russell, R.M. Nutr. Rev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Evaluation of UNICEF/Arab Republic of Egypt/WHO schistosomiasis Control Project in Beheira Governorate. Spencer, H.C., Ruiz-Tibén, E., Mansour, N.S., Cline, B.L. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Multiple sclerosis in the Turkish- and Greek-speaking communities of Cyprus. A United Nations (UNHCR) Bicommunal Project. Dean, G., Aksoy, H., Akalin, T., Middleton, L., Kyriallis, K. J. Neurol. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Progress towards the eradication of poliomyelitis globally and in Africa, January 2000. Tangermann, R.H., Aylward, B.R., Hull, H.F., Nkowane, B., Everts, H., Olive, J.M. Médecine tropicale : revue du Corps de santé colonial. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Towards a gender-sensitive approach to drug demand reduction: a process within the United Nations system. Hsu, L.N., du Guerny, J. Bulletin on narcotics. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Child nutrition in developing countries. Neumann, C.G., Gewa, C., Bwibo, N.O. Pediatric annals. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. The joint JMA-JICA project in Nepal. Kuratsuji, T. Acta paediatrica Japonica; Overseas edition. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. UNRWA and the health of Palestinian refugees. United Nations Relief and Works Agency. Lilienfield, L.S., Rose, J.C., Corn, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. UNICEF/W.H.O. glucose electrolyte solution not always appropriate. Tripp, J.H., Harries, J.T. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Two organochlorine pesticides, toxaphene and chlordane, are antagonists for estrogen-related receptor alpha-1 orphan receptor. Yang, C., Chen, S. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Salivary cortisol, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and general health in the acute phase and during 9-month follow-up. Aardal-Eriksson, E., Eriksson, T.E., Thorell, L.H. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Photic- and pattern-induced seizures: a review for the Epilepsy Foundation of America Working Group. Fisher, R.S., Harding, G., Erba, G., Barkley, G.L., Wilkins, A. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Diarrhoea in children in Papua New Guinea. Vince, J.D. Papua and New Guinea medical journal. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Protein digestibility and relevance to allergenicity. Bannon, G., Fu, T.J., Kimber, I., Hinton, D.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salt in Cholera. Faruque, A.S., Mahalanabis, D., Hamadani, J.D., Zetterstrom, R. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. A life-cycle comparison of several auxiliary blowing agents used for the manufacture of rigid polyurethane foam. Katz, S., Lindner, A.S. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Cost aspects of salt fluoridation. Gillespie, G.M., Marthaler, T.M. Schweizer Monatsschrift für Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia / SSO. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. The joint food and agriculture organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives and its role in the evaluation of the safety of veterinary drug residues in foods. MacNeil, J.D. The AAPS journal [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Endemic goitre in a rural community of KwaZulu-Natal. Benedé, J.G., Oelofse, A., van Stuijvenberg, M.E., Jooste, P.L., Weight, M.J., Benadé, A.J. S. Afr. Med. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Iodine and neuropsychological development. Hetzel, B.S. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Composition and protein quality of honeybee-collected pollen of Eucalyptus marginata and Eucalyptus calophylla. Bell, R.R., Thornber, E.J., Seet, J.L., Groves, M.T., Ho, N.P., Bell, D.T. J. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. The International Tuberculosis Campaign: a pioneering venture in mass vaccination and research. Comstock, G.W. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Microbiological laboratory results from Haiti: June-October 1995. Drabick, J.J., Gambel, J.M., Huck, E., De Young, S., Hardeman, L. Bull. World Health Organ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Are WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF-recommended replacement milks for infants of HIV-infected mothers appropriate in the South African context? Papathakis, P.C., Rollins, N.C. Bull. World Health Organ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident: fears, rumours and the truth. Rahu, M. Eur. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Impacts of informal caregiver availability on long-term care expenditures in OECD countries. Yoo, B.K., Bhattacharya, J., McDonald, K.M., Garber, A.M. Health services research. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Health and equity impacts of a large oil project in Africa. Jobin, W. Bull. World Health Organ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. A severe epidemic of meningococcal meningitis in Nigeria, 1996. Mohammed, I., Nasidi, A., Alkali, A.S., Garbati, M.A., Ajayi-Obe, E.K., Audu, K.A., Usman, A., Abdullahi, S. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparison of an oral rice-based electrolyte solution and a glucose-based electrolyte solution in hospitalized infants with diarrheal dehydration. Guiraldes, E., Triviño, X., Figueroa, G., Parker, M., Gutiérrez, C., Vásquez, A., Harún, A. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
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